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GRADE 8 ENG FORMAL LETTER WRITING
abha lakshmi singh
Malaria is one of the most widespread diseases in the world. Endemic malaria no longer occurs in many temperate zones as a result of social and economic improvement. At present malaria is the Third World's most dreaded killer. It kills over 1 million people and causes 300–500 million episodes of illness. In India, malaria-reported deaths have shown an upward trend. In 1955, a drive to eradicate malaria was launched in India. But after initial success it failed and malaria made a comeback. Malarial mosquitoes generally prefer unpolluted natural breeding sites but now they have adapted to the changed urban environment. In this paper, an attempt has been made to examine the occurrence of malaria and related environmental issues in a small town of India. Aligarh city, lying in the shadow of the country's capital New Delhi, was selected as a case study. Data were collected mainly from household surveys with the help of questionnaire interviews. About 2,185 households belonging to different income groups were sampled. The differences in the occurrence of malaria in the different income households (in 87% low, 69% lower-middle, 65% middle, 14% upper-middle, and 5% upper) suggest that most of these differences are related to the environmental conditions existing inside and outside their homes, such as poor drainage system, poor sullage disposal, open blocked drains, waterlogging and indoor water storage in open containers. Commitment both by the Government and local residents is needed to improve the environmental conditions and eradicate malaria.
From the Preface: Government of Andhra Pradesh commissioned the Institute of Health Systems to prepare a comprehensive manual to achieve better control of the Malaria situation in the state. We, the Malaria Manual Preparation Team, at IHS are very pleased to offer, through this manual, our contributions towards control of malaria in the state. Immediately after commissioning, we started collecting all available material about malaria control activities in the state. We interacted with the malaria control programme officers, and officials at Directorate of Health, dealing with malaria. We also discussed the matter among the Institute’s faculty and attended the National Workshop on Communicable Disease Control conducted by the State Government in December, which was very informative. This manual departs from traditional programme implementation manuals in the sense that this is a manual addressed to every one in the state, who have a role towards control of malaria. We have not repeat...
Introduction: Malaria is a major health threat in India. Many states incl uding Guj and focal outbreaks of malaria from 1997 to 2006. India suffered from an epidemic of BT malaria in 20 05, which was confirmed investigation. Material and methods: An outbreak of malaria occurred in a closed defence campus was investigated by an epidemiologist and was confirmed as an epidemic. Measures advised for its co and further prevention were strictly implemented to control it. The study is ba sed on the reported information and data collected at the time of inves tigation. Results: In a population of 4832 in a closed campus, 363 cas es positivity rate of 27.07 perce nt and overall API of 75.12 per thousand population s. The incidence was relatively higher among the children below group. High spleen rate and infant parasite rate co nfirmed the local transmission excessive breeding of vector was noticed as several places. Discussion: The campus suffered from BT malaria epidemic with v ery high AP...
Texila International Journal
Malaria was as old as human kind itself and had been the most potent scourge in humans from time immemorial in the World and Afro-Asian settings in particular. It was a disease caused by parasites of genus plasmodium namely: Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), Plasmodium ovale curtisi (Poc), Plasmodium ovale wallikeri (Pow), Plasmodium malariae (Pm), Plasmodium vivax (Pv) and Plasmodium Knowlesi (Pk) (Nzobo, Ngalasa and Kihamia 2015). These worked through a female anopheles mosquito. This study therefore, aimed to establish the spatio-temporal distribution of malaria in Samfya District, Zambia. Random and non-random research designs were used to obtain the sample and data for the study. There were 394 respondents, 3 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and 11 key informants. The results showed that there were more women than men who were afflicted by malaria as evidenced in the questionnaires, FGDs and the hospital records. Age too was a contributing factor as the under 5 year old (U/5 years) and the aged were more vulnerable to malaria as their immunities were low due to nutrition deficiencies. Income determined whether a household could afford to buy an ITN or any mosquito sprays to control the mosquito nuisance. The population was poor as 72.2% of the respondents earned less than ZMK 700 (US $ 70) per month. This was also related to the occupations the population was engaged in. Sixty-one point five percent (61.5%) were farmers who earned their incomes once per year after their crop harvests. House construction materials showed that 60% of the roofs were grass thatched, Iron/Asbestos (33.5%) and tiles (2.3%). The exterior house construction materials results were as follows: burnt bricks (61.2%), cement blocks (13.7%), unburnt bricks (10.9%), timber (5.3%) and straw/grass (0.3%). In terms of sources of energy, there were 5 sources that were used by the respondents in the study and these were: hydroelectricity (9.4%), Firewood (50.5%), Charcoal (36.3%), Crop residue (3%) and Firewood and Charcoal (0.8%).These factors contributed to the spatio-temporal distribution of malaria in Samfya District.
Tropical Medicine & International Health
Objectives To assess the impact of intensified malaria control interventions in an ethnic minority community in Betul using existing tools.Methods Two rounds of indoor residual spraying with synthetic pyrethroid insecticide were applied and larvivorous fish introduced, followed by intensive surveillance for early detection of Plasmodium falciparum with rapid diagnostic tests and prompt treatment with sulphadoxine pyrimethamine.Results Pre-intervention surveys revealed a very high fever rate in the community in all age groups with a slide positivity rate of >50% with >90%P. falciparum. The post-intervention phase showed a sharp steady decline in number of malaria cases (β 0.972; P < 0.0001, 95% CI 0.35–0.47). Monitoring of entomological results revealed a significant decline in both Anopheles species and An. culicifacies (P < 0.0001).Conclusion A combination of indoor residual spraying and early detection and prompt treatment complemented by rapid diagnostic tests and larvivorous fishes successfully brought malaria under control. These approaches could be applied in other regions of different endemicity to control malaria in India.Keywords malaria, tribal , Plasmodium falciparum, forest , Anopheles culicifacies, vectorObjectifs Evaluer l'impact d'interventions intensifiées du contrôle du paludisme dans une communauté ethnique minoritaire à Betul en utilisant les moyens existants.Méthodes Deux séries de pulvérisations d'insecticide d'intérieur à base de pyréthrine synthétique ont été réalisées et des poissons larvovivores ont été introduits. Ceci a été suivi d'une surveillance intensive avec détection précoce de Plasmodium falciparum grâce à des tests de diagnostics rapides et traitement rapide par sulfadoxine-pyriméthamine.Résultats Des études pré-interventionelles révélaient un taux élevé de fièvre dans la population tout âge confondu avec un taux de positivité des frottis supérieur à 50% dont plus de 90%àP. falciparum. La phase post-interventionelle montrait une chute nette et stable du nombre de cas de paludisme (β 0.972 ; P < 0.0001 ; IC 95% [0.35 ; 0.47]). Le monitorage des études entomologiques montrait une chute significative aussi bien parmi les Anophelesspp qu’An. culicifacies (P < 0,0001).Conclusions La combinaison des pulvérisations d'insecticides d'intérieur à la détection précoce des cas et leur traitement rapide, associée à l'utilisation des tests de détection rapide et des poissons larvovivores, permet un bon contrôle du paludisme. Ces approches pourraient être appliquées dans d'autres régions d'endémicité différentes pour contrôler le paludisme en Inde.Mots clefs paludisme , tribu , Plasmodium falciparum, forêt , Anophelesculicifacies, vecteurObjectifs Evaluer l'impact d'interventions intensifiées du contrôle du paludisme dans une communauté ethnique minoritaire à Betul en utilisant les moyens existants.Méthodes Deux séries de pulvérisations d'insecticide d'intérieur à base de pyréthrine synthétique ont été réalisées et des poissons larvovivores ont été introduits. Ceci a été suivi d'une surveillance intensive avec détection précoce de Plasmodium falciparum grâce à des tests de diagnostics rapides et traitement rapide par sulfadoxine-pyriméthamine.Résultats Des études pré-interventionelles révélaient un taux élevé de fièvre dans la population tout âge confondu avec un taux de positivité des frottis supérieur à 50% dont plus de 90%àP. falciparum. La phase post-interventionelle montrait une chute nette et stable du nombre de cas de paludisme (β 0.972 ; P < 0.0001 ; IC 95% [0.35 ; 0.47]). Le monitorage des études entomologiques montrait une chute significative aussi bien parmi les Anophelesspp qu’An. culicifacies (P < 0,0001).Conclusions La combinaison des pulvérisations d'insecticides d'intérieur à la détection précoce des cas et leur traitement rapide, associée à l'utilisation des tests de détection rapide et des poissons larvovivores, permet un bon contrôle du paludisme. Ces approches pourraient être appliquées dans d'autres régions d'endémicité différentes pour contrôler le paludisme en Inde.Mots clefs paludisme , tribu , Plasmodium falciparum, forêt , Anophelesculicifacies, vecteurObjetivos Evaluar el impacto de intensificadas intervenciones de control de la malaria en una comunidad de minoría étnica en Betul, utilizando herramientas existentes.Métodos Se aplicaron dos rondas de pulverización residual interior con insecticida piretroide sintético, y se introdujo el pez larvívoro, seguido de una vigilancia intensiva para la detección prematura de Plasmodium falciparum con pruebas de diagnóstico rápido e inmediato tratamiento con sulfadoxina-pirimetamina.Resultados Sondeos anteriores a la intervención revelaron una alta tasa de fiebre en la comunidad, en todos los grupos etarios, con una tasa deslizante de positividad de >50% con >90%P.falciparum. La fase posterior a la intervención mostró una pronunciada y permanente caída en el número de casos de malaria (β 0.972; P < 0.0001, 95% CI 0.35–0.47). El monitoreo de los resultados entomológicos revelaron una caída significativa en ambas especies Anofeles y An.culicifacies (P < 0.0001).Conclusión Una combinación de pulverización residual interior y detección temprana e inmediato tratamiento, complementada por pruebas rápidas de diagnóstico e introducción de peces larvívoros consiguió controlar la malaria. Estas estrategias podrían ser aplicadas en otras regiones con diferentes índices de endemicidad para controlar la malaria en la India.Palabras clave malaria , tribal , Plasmodium falciparum, selva , Anofeles culicifacies, vectorObjetivos Evaluar el impacto de intensificadas intervenciones de control de la malaria en una comunidad de minoría étnica en Betul, utilizando herramientas existentes.Métodos Se aplicaron dos rondas de pulverización residual interior con insecticida piretroide sintético, y se introdujo el pez larvívoro, seguido de una vigilancia intensiva para la detección prematura de Plasmodium falciparum con pruebas de diagnóstico rápido e inmediato tratamiento con sulfadoxina-pirimetamina.Resultados Sondeos anteriores a la intervención revelaron una alta tasa de fiebre en la comunidad, en todos los grupos etarios, con una tasa deslizante de positividad de >50% con >90%P.falciparum. La fase posterior a la intervención mostró una pronunciada y permanente caída en el número de casos de malaria (β 0.972; P < 0.0001, 95% CI 0.35–0.47). El monitoreo de los resultados entomológicos revelaron una caída significativa en ambas especies Anofeles y An.culicifacies (P < 0.0001).Conclusión Una combinación de pulverización residual interior y detección temprana e inmediato tratamiento, complementada por pruebas rápidas de diagnóstico e introducción de peces larvívoros consiguió controlar la malaria. Estas estrategias podrían ser aplicadas en otras regiones con diferentes índices de endemicidad para controlar la malaria en la India.Palabras clave malaria , tribal , Plasmodium falciparum, selva , Anofeles culicifacies, vector
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International Journal of Science and Healthcare Research (IJSHR)
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International Journal of Health Sciences and Research (IJHSR)
Alex R Ario
INVESTIGATING THE FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE INCREASE IN MALARIA CASES IN KAYAKOH VILLAGE, WARA WARA YAGALA CHIEFDOM, KOINADUGU DISTRICT.
David Sheku Sesay
Texila International Journal of Public Health
Annals of Community Health
The Indian journal of medical research
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
Samuel Hyellamada , Danjuma I J U D I G A L Garandi
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Anthonia Nnenna C Amadi
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Science Journal of Public Health
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How to write a letter
HOW TO WRITE A LETTER: A GUIDE FOR TEACHERS AND STUDENTS
In this age of digital communication, writing letters is becoming something of a lost art. Emails and text messages can be sent instantly and for a fraction of the cost good old-fashioned snail mail can offer.
So, why bother teaching letter-writing at all? Well, though electronic ‘letters’ are often freer in formatting and language than physical letters, we can also apply letter-writing rules to electronic media. However, physical letters do offer some distinct benefits of their own too.
A WELL-WRITTEN LETTER CAN CHANGE THE WORLD.
Whilst we pride ourselves here on how to write a great essay, information report, or another text type that is primarily used in an educational setting, the ability to craft a powerful letter or email has literally changed people’s lives, altered the course of history and been the difference between life and death in some cases.
It can be the one opportunity to remove all the noise and confusion on any subject area and honestly tell someone how you feel straight from the heart. Pen to paper.
For whatever reason, a thousand emails, tweets, and likes will never have the same impact as a well-crafted handwritten letter. Its very creation and existence show your reader how passionate and genuine about what it contains.
Letters fall under the transactional writing category; if you want to know more about transactional texts, be sure to check out our in-depth guide here.
COMPLETE LETTER WRITING UNIT FOR STUDENTS
Over 100 PAGES of engaging RESOURCES , various letter SAMPLES , LESSON PLANS and INTERACTIVE DIGITAL RESOURCES to teach your students how to write amazing LETTERS and EMAILS .
Teach this life skill with confidence through this excellent ALL-IN-ONE RESOURCE . No preparation is required.
3 REASONS TO TEACH LETTER WRITING
1. the personal touch: .
Those of us who grew up in an age before the internet got going will remember the excitement of waiting for and receiving a letter. Many of us will have had childhood pen pals we never met or received love letters from our teenage sweethearts. Maybe some treasured letters are still securely stored in a bedside drawer.
There is something extremely personal and intimate about the letter that email cannot capture. Letters are physical, and their increasing rarity makes them seem even more intimate today.
In this day and age, receiving a personally written letter is something a unicorn in communication terms. Students who know how to produce a well-crafted letter can use it to their advantage. For example, any business hiring manager will undoubtedly be numbed by the constant torrent of emails flooding their inbox.
That mailed resume accompanied by a handwritten letter that waits for them on their desk in the morning will surely stand out and secure an attentive read. The letter, in its various forms, is guaranteed to stand out and make an impact in an age where the vast majority of communication is digital.
Just as letter writing has declined in popularity, so too has the emphasis on well-developed handwriting skills. You can, if you wish, take the opportunity here to have the students work on their handwriting skills.
While students may protest that they can accomplish the task much quicker by word-processing, another benefit of handwriting a letter is that the speed becomes almost meditative. This allows students to focus carefully on their grammar and punctuation without always resorting to the crutch of spell-checkers and grammar correction software.
FORMAL AND INFORMAL LETTER WRITING: WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?
The table below outlines whether your letter should be written formally or informally, with some suggested prompts . Whilst there are many similarities, a formal letter should always be considered as a document with a real purpose and ramifications.
FORMAL LETTER FEATURES
USED FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION THESE DOCUMENTS FOLLOW A PRESCRIBED FORMAT. THEY ARE WRITTEN IN A PASSIVE VOICE FOR A SPECIFIC PURPOSE AND IN MANY CASES ARE LEGALLY BINDING. SOME EXAMPLES ARE.
INVITATION Make someone feel special about an upcoming event.
APPLICATION Write a professional letter of application for a job or group you wish to join.
REFEREE / REFERENCE Vouch for another’s skills, personality or credibility.
ACCEPTANCE & REJECTION Approve or deny an applicant in a professional manner.
MAKE AN OFFER Make a formal and binding offer in writing.
EXIT / RESIGNATION Formally leave or step down in a professional and dignified manner.
INFORMAL LETTER FEATURES
USED FOR PERSONAL COMMUNICATION THESE LETTERS HAVE NO PRESCRIBED FORMAT AND ARE WRITTEN IN AN ACTIVE VOICE.
THANK YOU Let someone know you appreciate their efforts.
CONGRATULATIONS Acknowledge someone’s achievements in life.
GRIEVANCE / LOSS Acknowledge someones personal loss or suffering and let them know you care.
FRIENDSHIP & LOVE Tell someone how special they are to you and why?
LETTER TO THE EDITOR / MAYOR ETC. Let someone know how their actions and adversely affect you and others.
LETTER TO SELF Give your older or younger self some words of advice and wisdom.
INFORMATIONAL UPDATE Write a letter back home telling them what you have been up to.
HOW TO WRITE FORMAL LETTERS
The writing process begins with planning.
As with all genres of writing, the process of formal letter writing should start with planning. This should involve sketching a brief outline from which to work rather than a comprehensive detailing of minutiae. The plan should include:
- Note addresses, names etc. – who are you writing to?
- Record the purpose of the letter – what do you want to say?
- List points to be made (each will form a paragraph) – how will you say it?
- State action point – what do you want the reader to do?
Formal letters can be written for a wide range of purposes and may come in various shapes, including a letter of complaint, a cover letter accompanying a job application, a letter of invitation, a reference letter, or a proposal letter – to name a few. Though each will adhere to its own rules of formatting and tone when writing formal letters, students should avoid using slang or contractions.
Language should be straightforward and polite. Encourage students to avoid bursts of purple prose in favor of direct, functional language. Usually, a formal letter will be written to achieve a particular end and should be written with that end foremost in mind. Students should avoid meanderings and stay firmly focused on the task at hand.
TIPS FOR WRITING GREAT FORMAL LETTERS
- The writer’s address should be in the top right-hand corner.
- The date should be written below the writer’s address
- The recipient’s name and address are below that on the left-hand side
- Use the correct opening (Dear Sir / Madam, Dear Mrs Ferguson, etc.)
- Use Standard English
- The opening sentence should explain the purpose of the letter
- Each paragraph should make a single specific point
- Use an appropriate formal tone and register in the wording of the letter
- Avoid contractions, slang, and abbreviations
- The concluding ‘action point’ paragraph states what you want the recipient to do
- The formal ending, such as Yours Sincerely or Yours Faithfully
A Note on Salutations
If the student knows the intended recipient’s name, start with Dear Mr. / Mrs Surname and end with Yours Sincerely. If they don’t know the recipient’s name, start with Dear Sir / Madam and end with Yours Faithfully.
Use of Rhetorical Devices
As mentioned, formal letter writing focuses on attempting to convince someone to take some course of action or other. To do this, it is helpful to employ some rhetorical devices to make the writing more persuasive . Some useful techniques to encourage your students to employ include:
Direct Address: Using the pronoun ‘you’ in a formal letter makes the reader feel that you are speaking directly to them. This helps to engage the reader and encourage them to continue reading the letter.
Emotive Language: Where students are trying to convince the reader to take a course of action, the use of emotive language can often be a powerful tool. Students can use either positive or negative colored words to create the desired response in the reader.
Facts and Figures: Another way to persuade and convince is to employ facts and figures to support the points made in the letter.
FORMAL LETTER STUDENT EXAMPLES
How to write an informal letter
Common features of informal letters:.
There are far fewer rules to follow when writing an informal letter, but there are still some practical guidelines to follow that will prove helpful for students engaged in writing informally.
As with any piece of writing, it is important to consider who the audience is and the reason for writing in the first place. In particular, this will help decide the tone and the language register. The more intimate the relationship, the more informal the language can be.
Though the letter will be informal, it will still have a purpose. Information should still be organized into paragraphs, as would be done with a formal, more ‘official’ letter. Students sometimes struggle with this aspect, as they often conflate ‘informal’ with ‘disorganized.’ Making them plan their informal letter before writing can help ensure it is sufficiently organized.
HOW TO START AN INFORMAL LETTER
Informal letters will start with a greeting appropriate to how close the relationship is. For acquaintances, this may be ‘Dear Tom,’ (using the first name instead of the surname) to a very informal ‘Hi Jane,’. Don’t forget the comma after the name!
After the greeting, a general opening sentence should follow. Usually, this will be something like a ‘How are you?’ or a ‘How have you been?’. If the recipient is married or has kids, you may wish to ask how their spouse or children are.
Next, students should state the reason for writing. The language should be open and friendly in tone and, in contrast to the formal letter, colloquial language, idiomatic expressions, and contractions are perfectly okay and even desirable.
Just as the opening salutation to an informal letter is much more relaxed, so too will the closing salutation. There are many possibilities for the students to choose here, and their decision will depend on who they are writing to and their personal preferences. Some examples of possible closings include ‘Love’, ‘Best regards’, ‘All the best’, and ‘Thanks’.
INFORMAL LETTER STUDENT EXAMPLES
Use our resources and tools to improve your student’s writing skills through proven teaching strategies.
PRACTICE LETTER WRITING WITH THESE ACTIVITIES FOR STUDENTS
The most effective way for students to internalize all the features of letter writing, formal or informal, is to gain experience by writing various letters for differing purposes. The following activities offer some suggestions for students to get practising today:
1. FICTION AS A SPRINGBOARD
Have students write as if they were a character from a piece of fiction you have been reading in class. Choosing a dramatic point in the plot , ask students to imagine they are one of the characters writing a letter to another character in the story. This writer may be either formal or informal, depending on the scenario presented. This will give students realistic letter-writing practice while also getting them to engage closely with the text and respond imaginatively to its themes.
2. THE AGONY AUNT
Either offer a range of possible life predicaments or cut out the questions from the ‘agony aunt’ page of a local newspaper. Students must write back offering advice in response to the predicaments expressed in the question or predicament. The response should be written in full letter format. This activity also lends itself to several variations. The response may be written to a close friend, for example, or written from the perspective of a professional agony aunt employing a more formal tone and presentation.
3. A LETTER OF COMPLAINT
Have students think of their favorite candy bar or clothing item. Encourage them to imagine they have bought this product lately and found it to be substandard. Students must write a formal letter of complaint to the manufacturer outlining their complaint and recommending a course of action to satisfactorily resolve that complaint. They must use all the features of a formal letter as outlined above.
HOW TO MAKE YOUR HANDWRITTEN LETTERS LOOK OLD AND AUTHENTIC.
- Write in pencil or a calligraphy pen,
- screw them up tightly and carefully unfold and flatten.
- Lightly dab coffee stains over the paper to make it look aged.
- Carefully singe or burn the edges of your paper.
- Add some sepia-filtered photos for effect.
As students become more confident in their understanding of letter-writing formats, encourage them to exchange letters with each other for peer assessment. You may wish to provide them with a checklist of features to look for while reading over their partner’s work.
Letter-writing can also be a great way to partner up with schools overseas; often, children studying English as a second language will be delighted to receive letters from (and write to) students in English-speaking countries. And though email increasingly encroaches on the traditional territory of the letter, many of the skills garnered in the practice of letter writing are transferable to the modern manifestation. There is ample opportunity here to link letter-writing learning with approaches to writing emails too.
Letter-writing can provide a focus for a wide range of learning objectives while also teaching students valuable practical skills that will serve them well beyond their school years, both in their personal and work lives. And who knows, perhaps in years to come, one of the letters your student writes in your class may become a treasured keepsake in someone’s bedside drawer.
LETTER WRITING GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS (TEMPLATES)
WRITING CHECKLIST & RUBRIC BUNDLE FOR ALL TEXT TYPES
HOW TO WRITE A FORMAL LETTER TUTORIAL VIDEO
OTHER GREAT ARTICLES RELATED TO LETTER WRITING
Personal Narrative Writing Guide
How to Write a Recount Text (And Improve your Writing Skills)
Content for this page has been written by Shane Mac Donnchaidh. A former principal of an international school and university English lecturer with 15 years of teaching and administration experience. Editing and support content has been provided by the literacyideas team.
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