• Training Library
  • Instructors

Designing a Wikipedia Writing and Research Assignment

Explore a case study of the “classic” Wikipedia writing assignment: students work individually or in small teams to create or expand Wikipedia articles on a given topic.

Estimated time to complete: 15 minutes

what is assignment wikipedia

  • University of Michigan Library
  • Research Guides

Resources for Using & Editing Wikipedia

  • Teaching with Wikipedia
  • Introduction
  • Citing Wikipedia
  • Understanding Wikipedia
  • Editing Basics
  • Ways to Contribute
  • Galleries, Libraries, Archives, Museums (GLAM)

Library Contact

Profile Photo

Introduction to Teaching with Wikipedia

Wikipedia assignments can be valuable tools to help students develop information and digital literacies, composition and editorial skills, reference skills, and critical thinking ability. They can range from single close reading exercises to semester-long editing assignments with the goal of producing new pages, and can be integrated into courses from any discipline.

Resources at University of Michigan

For faculty and Graduate Student Instructors interested in teaching with Wikipedia, you'll find numerous resources to help you here at the University of Michigan Library and through our partners are  CRLT  and  LSA Instructional Support Services . 

Through  ScholarSpace ,  schedule a consultation  with a  digital pedagogy librarian , and we'll help you with every stage of designing and implementing a learning activity:

  • designing an assignment (learning goals, outcomes, reflection assignment, etc.)
  • scheduling and providing classroom instruction
  • holding additional office hours
  • building and managing a WikiEdu course dashboard
  • assigning modules and tutorials
  • hosting or providing space for edit-a-thon events
  • developing assessment tools

The U-M library also works closely with the  Wiki Education , which supports the  Wikipedia Education Program .  We have supported Wikipedia editing assignments in numerous departments including  Chemistry, History, Afroamerican and African Studies, Psychology, Economics,  and others.

Resources through Wiki Education

"Wikipedia is an opportunity to teach students essential 21st century skills that most will use in their careers and personal lives. Wikipedia is a valuable public resource, and in a classroom environment students learn how to contribute and use it properly. Curricula can and should include Wikipedia!" Read more Reasons to use Wikipedia in teaching.

Visit the Portal for Educators for more information, including:

  • Examples of Assignment Design based on the experiences of hundreds of professors worldwide.
  • How to create a class Syllabus and examples of successful syllabi
  • Case Studies to help you form a plan for how you can use Wikipedia as a teaching tool in your class
  • Materials for Teaching (e.g. video tutorials for editing basics)

Helpful materials also inlcude the downloadable brochures “ Instructor Basics ” and “ Case Studies ” which describe best practices, learning objectives for assignments, and how to grade a Wikipedia assignment.

You can also view an online orientation for educators  who are interested in using Wikipedia assignments in their classes, and t raining modules for students  editing Wikipedia for an assignment.

We strongly suggest you to review these materials before you design the assignment with Wikipedia editing component. One important thing to note is that the style of students' writings needs to fit the encyclopedia style so that the articles would not get easily deleted by the community. 

The experience of using Wikipedia for multiple class assignments is described in the article  Improving Science Education and Understanding through Editing Wikipedia . by C. L. Mo y, J. R. Locke, B. P. Coppola and A. J. McNeil in Journal of Chemical Education, 2010 , 87 (11), 1159-1162.

See list of past and current courses in the U.S. under Wikipedia Education Program.

Wikipedia in the Classroom

Looking for ways to incorporate Wikipedia into course assignments? 

  • Resources: Wikipedia Classes/Assignments/Brochures from Postcolonial Digital Humanities
  • Education/Case Studies from the Wikipedia Education Program  
  • Brochures and other classroom handouts from the Wikipedia Education Program

Some of the contents of this page were borrowed and adapted from a Research Guide  at UCLA.

Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer.

To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to  upgrade your browser .

Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.

  • We're Hiring!
  • Help Center

paper cover thumbnail

Wikipedia Article (Writing Assignment)

Profile image of Eric Hood

I first used this assignment in a freshman composition course that was focused on genre theory and genre exploration as a method to improve student writing, and I have since adapted it for other classes, including upper-division courses. The assignment has two aspects: an analysis of existing Wikipedia articles and the composition of a new article. I have found that the genre analysis portion of the assignment is essential in helping students to identify the key traits of content and form used by the Wikipedia community (although I have dropped the focus on the ideological implications of form in classes not as familiar with genre theory). Looking carefully at several related examples and writing about them prepares students for the work of drafting. Furthermore, as a writing instructor, I have found that the unique process of writing a Wikipedia article has several pedagogical advantages. First, students know that their work will be published in a public forum and approach the...

Related Papers

SSRN Electronic Journal

Arto Lanamäki , Chitu Okoli , Finn Å Nielsen , Mohamad Mehdi

what is assignment wikipedia

Aigerim Karimova

Teaching Sociology

Piotr Konieczny

This paper presents an analysis of my experiences with a teaching activity that engages students in publishing in Wikipedia on issues relating to globalization. It begins with a short overview of some of the current debates revolving around teaching globalization, which lay ground for the assignment. I discuss how this teaching tool fits with a number of dimensions related to teaching globalization, particularly with an international service learning approach. Finally, I present assessment data from a series of surveys I conducted from 2008 to 2016 on the effectiveness of the assignment.

Oliver Ferschke

Over the past decade, the paradigm of the World Wide Web has shifted from static web pages towards participatory and collaborative content production. The main properties of this user generated content are a low publication threshold and little or no editorial control. While this has improved the variety and timeliness of the available information, it causes an even higher variance in quality than the already heterogeneous quality of traditional web content. Wikipedia is the prime example for a successful, large-scale, collaboratively created resource that reflects the spirit of the open collaborative content creation paradigm. Even though recent studies have confirmed that the overall quality of Wikipedia is high, there is still a wide gap that must be bridged before Wikipedia reaches the state of a reliable, citable source. A key prerequisite to reaching this goal is a quality management strategy that can cope both with the massive scale of Wikipedia and its open and almost anarchic nature. This includes an efficient communication platform for work coordination among the collaborators as well as techniques for monitoring quality problems across the encyclopedia. This dissertation shows how natural language processing approaches can be used to assist information quality management on a massive scale. In the first part of this thesis, we establish the theoretical foundations for our work. We first introduce the relatively new concept of open online collaboration with a particular focus on collaborative writing and proceed with a detailed discussion of Wikipedia and its role as an encyclopedia, a community, an online collaboration platform, and a knowledge resource for language technology applications. We then proceed with the three main contributions of this thesis. Even though there have been previous attempts to adapt existing information quality frameworks to Wikipedia, no quality model has yet incorporated writing quality as a central factor. Since Wikipedia is not only a repository of mere facts but rather consists of full text articles, the writing quality of these articles has to be taken into consideration when judging article quality. As the first main contribution of this thesis, we therefore define a comprehensive article quality model that aims to consolidate both the quality of writing and the quality criteria defined in multiple Wikipedia guidelines and policies into a single model. The model comprises 23 dimensions segmented into the four layers of intrinsic quality, contextual quality, writing quality and organizational quality. As a second main contribution, we present an approach for automatically identifying quality flaws in Wikipedia articles. Even though the general idea of quality detection has been introduced in previous work, we dissect the approach to find that the task is inherently prone to a topic bias which results in unrealistically high cross-validated evaluation results that do not reflect the classifier’s real performance on real world data. We solve this problem with a novel data sampling approach based on the full article revision history that is able to avoid this bias. It furthermore allows us not only to identify flawed articles but also to find reliable counterexamples that do not exhibit the respective quality flaws. For automatically detecting quality flaws in unseen articles, we present FlawFinder, a modular system for supervised text classification. We evaluate the system on a novel corpus of Wikipedia articles with neutrality and style flaws. The results confirm the initial hypothesis that the reliable classifiers tend to exhibit a lower cross-validated performance than the biased ones but the scores more closely resemble their actual performance in the wild. As a third main contribution, we present an approach for automatically segmenting and tagging the user contributions on article Talk pages to improve the work coordination among Wikipedians. These unstructured discussion pages are not easy to navigate and information is likely to get lost over time in the discussion archives. By automatically identifying the quality problems that have been discussed in the past and the solutions that have been proposed, we can help users to make informed decisions in the future. Our contribution in this area is threefold: (i) We describe a novel algorithm for segmenting the unstructured dialog on Wikipedia Talk pages using their revision history. In contrast to related work, which mainly relies on the rudimentary markup, this new algorithm can reliably extract meta data, such as the identity of a user, and is moreover able to handle discontinuous turns. (ii) We introduce a novel scheme for annotating the turns in article discussions with dialog act labels for capturing the coordination efforts of article improvement. The labels reflect the types of criticism discussed in a turn, for example missing information or inappropriate language, as well as any actions proposed for solving the quality problems. (iii) Based on this scheme, we created two automatically segmented and manually annotated discussion corpora extracted from the Simple English Wikipedia (SEWD) and the English Wikipedia (EWD). We evaluate how well text classification approaches can learn to assign the dialog act labels from our scheme to unseen discussion pages and achieve a cross-validated performance of F1 = 0.82 on the SEWD corpus while we obtain an average performance of F1 = 0.78 on the larger and more complex EWD corpus.

Legal Educ. Rev.

Normann Witzleb

Lior Gelernter

Wikipedia is a multilingual internet encyclopedia which users can freely use or edit, and whose contents are written collaboratively by volunteers from all over the world. Over the last decade, its innovative mode of production allowed it to accumulate and organize unprecedented volumes of content and establish itself as a prominent resource in contemporary information society. At the same time, however, its reliance on un-vetted and unprofessional voluntary labor raises widespread doubts regarding its reliability and legitimacy as a source of information. This study explores the institutionalization and subsequent reception of Wikipedia as a distinctive, emergent form of epistemic culture – i.e. amalgams of standards and practices underlying the production and legitimation of knowledge (Knorr-Cetina, 1999). As such, it presents a strategic case allowing us to observe how new epistemic cultures are constructed, debated and institutionalized in practice. Current research tends to explain Wikipedia’s success in a-historical terms, using its current features as taken for granted explanatory factors. In contrast, this study draws attention to the contingent and contentious processes through which these features were formed, negotiated and institutionalized during Wikipedia's initial, founding phase using previously unavailable archives from that period. Moreover, while research has tended to neglect the context of Wikipedia's consumption, this study also examines Wikipedia's reception and use by a specific category of knowledge experts —namely, journalists—who use it routinely in the course of their work and have the capacity to propagate its legitimacy. Combining attention to both production and reception, I suggest can lead to a better understanding of Wikipedia's actual success and legitimation processes. Theoretically, this research reconstructs Wikipedia’s history and patterns of production and consumption through pragmatist lenses—emphasizing the importance of exploring concrete practices and objects rather than abstract beliefs or values. Thus, the argument centers on the ways in which actors creatively solve problems they encounter in the course of action, focusing on their use and translation of extant repertoires of practices and justifications. It draws upon insights from several pragmatically oriented theoretical streams, mainly related to Studies of Science and Technology (STS), such as Knorr-Cetina’s constructivism, Susan L. Star's interactionism and Actor-Network Theory (ANT). Opting for such a pragmatist approach allows me to both conceive of Wikipedia as a modern epistemic object, and outline actors’ modes of engagement with the practicalities of knowledge giving which sustain it. Methodologically, the first part of this study is based on a newly available database of almost all the web activity conducted in Wikipedia's formative first year, providing a comprehensive record of every edit entry and dispute in the field. The main analytic tool I use here is the “cartography of controversies” (Venturini, 2009), an Actor-Network Theory inspired approach which maps the locations and actions of different actors within a network, and traces how disputed claims become taken-for-grated and “black-boxed.” The second part, examining Wikipedia's reception, is based on in depth, semi-structured, interviews I have conducted with 20 journalists in Israel. The following, empirical section starts with two chapters linking Wikipedia to its immediate historical origins – the first of them tracing the failure of Nupedia as the first serious open internet encyclopedic project, and the second comparing this failure to the processes which eventually led to Wikipedia subsequent success. In an attempt to give it a solid basis of legitimacy, Nupedia's founders designed a production system based on rigid and restrictive practices of knowledge giving imported from the academic world, and relied on the participation of volunteer certified experts. Its failure to capitalize on the legitimacy of existing cultural practices, expressed in its inability to build a viable gift-economy attractive to the volunteers they sought, led its founders to try and supplement it with its mirror image, i.e. an open, almost unstructured project. The result was Wikipedia: a project aiming for production volume rather than legitimacy, and based on an essentially unrestricted contribution of knowledge. Subsequent chapters then show how Wikipedia's policies and standards were established from this chaotic origin in the midst of a series of conflicts and controversies. As I show through detailed analysis of several such controversies, the negotiation of these conflicts led to the emergence of number of key principles of coordination: the primacy of the traditional encyclopedic model as a "standard for standards"; the legitimacy of the Wiki cultural as a resource for schemes and practices; radical collaboration and lack of hierarchy in the writing and editing process; the reliance on effective consensus between editors to establish policy; the dialogical nature of knowledge construction; the reliance on references to other texts rather than on expertise and original research to establish knowledge; and finally, the preference for productivity and content quantity over control and quality. In addition, I demonstrate how various "conscription devices" (Henderson, 1991), such as policy pages, warning templates and software features, were erected to sustain these principles as well as to establish new forms of gift practices, many of which still stand at the basis of Wikipedia's current structures and practices. Emerging from this description is a distinct form of knowledge production, contribution and coordination displaying a relatively informal pattern of institutionalization, based on the erection of what I term "Privileged Passage Points," (PPPs) a concept coined to highlight the common features of several elements in Wikipedia – such as its policy pages and the authority of its founders—that funnel action without becoming obligatory. As Wikipedia encourages and relies on the voluntary contribution of knowledge even by anonymous or inexperienced users, and as its body of editors is extremely diverse, such flexibility was crucial in allowing it to attract gifts of knowledge from diverse contributors and function as a “boundary object” (Star and Griesemer 1989) for them. The last empirical chapter explores how knowledge experts use Wikipedia and assess its reliability, based on semi-structured interviews with Israeli journalists. Here, I found a routine and universal use of Wikipedia. Simultaneously, however, the interviews revealed a systematic taboo preventing journalists from publicly acknowledging having made use of Wikipedia. Wikipedia thus functions as a hazardous yet practical shortcut to the more fundamental sources of knowledge understood to reside elsewhere, in external authoritative sources indicated by links and references framing Wikipedia's text. Journalists tend to assess the validity of the information conveyed in Wikipedia articles basing themselves on a semiotic frame found in and around the latter, and used to attest to its own credibility and legitimacy. The result, I suggest, is a mode of consumption based on practical legitimacy, i.e. a limited form of legitimization embedded in the practices of Wikipedia's users, and granting article contents a limited yet observable measure of authority, as it takes into account and encapsulates both Wikipedia's de-facto legitimacy—in the sense that "everybody does that"—and lack of de-jure legitimacy. Finally, the conclusion discusses the implication of Nupedia and Wikipedia's cases for the study of contemporary knowledge-giving practices, as well as for a better understanding of the latter's relations with the vision of enlightenment and notions of rationality, science and expertise commonly associated with the very concept of modernity. As for the former, I find that Wikipedia's success is related to its ability to retain a flexible and open gift repertoire congruent with its extremely dynamic social and technological online context. In contrast with Nupedia's reliance on academic-like practices, Wikipedia built on gift-practices already prevalent in the online environment it operated in, adapted them to its innovative goals, and kept them flexible enough to support various types of giving. As for the relevance of the concept of modernity, Wikipedia may seem to challenge the accepted vision of modern knowledge as it is based on the decoupling of knowledge and expertise and of theoretical and practical legitimation, two amalgams standing at the very core of modern theories and methodologies. However, it does so in a way that also keeps assuming the legitimacy of modern epistemologies, and indeed, attempts to insert itself in the legacy of previous encyclopedias. Rather than a radical rift, then, Wikipedia presents a case of more nuanced and subtle transformation. By practically moving from obligatory to privileged passage points, and from essential to practical legitimacy, it constructs a new form of epistemic culture, which draws from earlier conceptualizations of knowledge, but re-aligns the notions of knowledge and expertise in novel ways.

College Composition and Communication

James P. Purdy

Journal of The American Society for Information Science and Technology

Michael Twidale

The classic problem within the information quality (IQ) research and practice community has been the problem of defining IQ. It has been found repeatedly that IQ is context sensitive and cannot be described, measured, and assured with a single model. There is a need for empirical case studies of IQ work in different systems to develop a systematic knowledge that can then inform and guide the construction of context-specific IQ models. This article analyzes the organization of IQ assurance work in a large-scale, open, collaborative encyclopedia—Wikipedia. What is special about Wikipedia as a resource is that the quality discussions and processes are strongly connected to the data itself and are accessible to the general public. This openness makes it particularly easy for researchers to study a particular kind of collaborative work that is highly distributed and that has a particularly substantial focus, not just on error detection but also on error correction. We believe that the study of those evolving debates and processes and of the IQ assurance model as a whole has useful implications for the improvement of quality in other more conventional databases.

Davida Scharf

See review in Library Journal. http://reviews.libraryjournal.com/2013/11/reference/wiki-literacy/

Writing Spaces: Readings on Writing. Vol. 1. Ed. Charles Lowe and Pavel Zemliansky.

James P . Purdy

RELATED PAPERS

Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology

Arto Lanamäki

Jennifer C Edwards

Andrea Forte

  •   We're Hiring!
  •   Help Center
  • Find new research papers in:
  • Health Sciences
  • Earth Sciences
  • Cognitive Science
  • Mathematics
  • Computer Science
  • Academia ©2023
  • Open supplemental data
  • Reference Manager
  • Simple TEXT file

People also looked at

Curriculum, instruction, and pedagogy article, using wikipedia assignments to teach critical thinking and scientific writing in stem courses.

what is assignment wikipedia

  • 1 Department of Integrative Biology, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, Canada
  • 2 Institute of Culture & Environment, Alaska Pacific University, Anchorage, AK, United States
  • 3 Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, United States
  • 4 Department of Biological Sciences and School of Freshwater Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, United States
  • 5 Department of Natural Resources and the Environment & Center for Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, United States
  • 6 Department of Biology, Miami University, Oxford, OH, United States
  • 7 Department of Biological Sciences, Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX, United States
  • 8 Batelle, National Ecological Observatory Network, Boulder, CO, United States
  • 9 Vermont EPSCoR, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, United States
  • 10 Prairie Springs Environmental Education Center and Department of Life Sciences, Carroll University, Waukesha, WI, United States
  • 11 School of Environmental Science, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada
  • 12 Department of Environmental Studies, Rollins College, Winter Park, FL, United States
  • 13 Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Pembroke, Pembroke, NC, United States
  • 14 Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, United States

While many instructors have reservations against Wikipedia use in academic settings, editing Wikipedia teaches students valuable writing, editing, and critical thinking skills. Wikipedia assignments align with the community of inquiry framework, which focuses on the elements needed for a successful online learning experience. We report on a faculty mentoring network, created by WikiProject Limnology and Oceanography, which helped 14 instructors with little to no prior experience implement a Wikipedia assignment in their classes. We found that Wikipedia assignments increase students’ motivation to produce high quality work and enhance their awareness of reliable scientific sources. Wikipedia assignments can be comparable to other writing assignments in length and complexity, but have a far wider audience than a traditional research paper. Participants in our mentoring network reported challenges with implementing this new type of assignment, and here, we share resources and solutions to those reported barriers.

Introduction

While academia and Wikipedia have historically had an uneasy relationship, Wikipedia assignments offer an opportunity to bridge the gap between scholarly information and the public ( Jemielniak and Aibar, 2016 ; Konieczny, 2021 ). Students can play a critical role in this process by adding missing information to articles and thereby improving a freely-accessible resource. In particular, students can directly improve the quantity and quality of information about water-related and other science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) topics on Wikipedia ( Kincaid et al., 2020 , Stachelek et al., 2020 ). Wikipedia assignments also offer opportunities for instructors to foster collaboration between students and subject-matter experts ( Radtke and Munsell, 2010 ) and to have class discussions about the reliability and quality of various online sources of information. Finally, editing Wikipedia helps students experience a direct transfer of information from academic, often paywalled, sources to a more public distribution of information ( Callis et al., 2009 ). These assignments provide a unique philosophical perspective on the scope and nature of peer-review, both within the scientific community and more broadly, and can work well in a variety of instruction modalities. When writing assignments are completed in isolation with no audience beyond the instructor or fellow students in the course, students may not feel a strong incentive to produce quality written work. At the same time, education research supports the idea that writing is both a critical skill and a way to construct knowledge and deepen understanding about scientific topics ( NGSS Lead States, 2013 ). Structuring writing assignments so that students know their work will reach a broader audience could incentivize students to focus on clarity and comprehensiveness ( Apollonio et al., 2018 ).

Editing or creating new Wikipedia articles is an innovative way to teach critical thinking and scientific writing in online, in-person, or hybrid (including elements of both online and in-person) course formats. Assignments where students either edit existing articles or create new articles on Wikipedia teach students to write clearly and effectively for a broad audience ( Vetter et al., 2019 ). These assignments also motivate students to engage in a writing assignment with immediate and measurable societal impact. Moreover, the quality of the resulting Wikipedia articles helps instructors assess student learning about a particular course topic. Wikipedia assignments can be structured so that collaboration and interaction with colleagues are intended learning outcomes ( Koziura et al., 2020 ). For example, students can jointly edit and improve an article, peer review each other’s articles, and/or incorporate expert reviewer feedback as part of the Wikipedia assignment structure ( Shane-Simpson and Brooks, 2016 ). A focus on group learning aligns with many institutional priorities for novel and active learning and peer engagement. Moreover, Wikipedia assignments provide an alternative to academic service-learning projects, with a more global focus on the intended audience, as well as a mechanism for community engagement on a virtual platform ( Vetter et al., 2019 ). These assignments also provide students with opportunities to work with experts beyond their academic institution, a powerful motivator to complete quality work and an opportunity to gain varied insights on a topic.

In addition to meeting specific or requisite learning objectives, Wikipedia assignments provide a creative approach for accomplishing more co-curricular goals of ethical literacy. While digital literacy, information equity, and ethics might not necessarily be core competencies or explicit course objectives, they are nonetheless important topics for students to learn in an increasingly digital world ( Coffin Murray and Pérez, 2014 ). Importantly, Wikipedia assignments help break the “ritualization” of student literature search practices ( Bhatt and Mackenzie, 2019 ), as students are confronted with an assignment that breaks the mold of the typical term paper. Wikipedia assignments also help students become more savvy consumers of online information, an increasingly critical skill ( Brossard, 2013 ). Additionally, Wikipedia editing assignments align with the principles of open pedagogy ( Koziura et al., 2020 ), where students not only produce open information, but also have to consider open access principles and the accessibility of science communication.

In this article, we describe outcomes and resources generated from a multi-institution faculty mentoring network led by members of WikiProject Limnology and Oceanography 1 during the 2020–2021 academic year, during which most of the mentored instructors were teaching courses with either hybrid or online delivery. The intent of the faculty mentoring network was to provide resources and support to faculty implementing a Wikipedia assignment for the first or second time in their science courses related to aquatic systems. This support included reviews of student Wikipedia drafts by subject area experts that were recruited for this purpose by members of WikiProject Limnology and Oceanography. We report some of the successes and challenges that faculty experienced in carrying out Wikipedia assignments and suggest resources and strategies to support instructors who are interested in doing a Wikipedia assignment in their STEM course.

Wikipedia Assignment Alignment With the Community of Inquiry Framework

A Wikipedia assignment maps onto the Community of Inquiry framework developed for online learning and therefore aligns with constructivist theories of learning ( Garrison and Arbaugh, 2007 ). Briefly, the Community of Inquiry framework posits that three overlapping elements are needed for a successful online educational experience: social presence, cognitive presence, and teaching presence ( Garrison et al., 2001 ). Different portions of Wikipedia editing or writing assignments map on to each of these three elements ( Figure 1 ). First, social presence is the ability of learners to project their whole and authentic selves in an online learning environment. In a Wikipedia assignment, this element is achieved through students’ ability to work informally in a virtual draft environment, called the “sandbox” ( Supplementary Material: ) (WP L&O The Sandbox 2 ), on the Wikipedia site. In this space, students can select topics of interest and interact with peers through offering feedback or working collaboratively on a single topic. Second, cognitive presence is the way that learners construct understanding through continued cycles of reflection and communication. Wikipedia assignments can be structured to go through iterative phases of feedback as student work develops and are scaffolded to facilitate this construction of knowledge. Finally, teaching presence is defined as the ways that courses are designed and instruction is delivered to facilitate student understanding. As mentioned previously, Wikipedia assignments can be tailored with different levels of student–teacher interaction individually or in groups. The free platform, WikiEdu, 3 also delivers asynchronous online modules on how to edit Wikipedia and provides instructor support for Wikipedia assignments.

www.frontiersin.org

Figure 1. Conceptual model of the Community of Inquiry framework ( Garrison and Arbaugh, 2007 ), adapted to include parts of a Wikipedia assignment that apply to the various elements of the framework. Areas of overlap indicate interdependent goals that combine to create a meaningful educational experience.

In addition to mapping onto an established pedagogical framework for online learning, Wikipedia assignments help meet specific learning objectives in STEM courses, such as critical thinking and evaluation. For example, Wikipedia has standards about what types of sources can be referenced. 4 Learning about appropriate referencing can be both a lesson objective and an aspect of assessment on the finished project by including training about this topic. Additionally, Wikipedia assignments require reconciling potentially conflicting sources of published information and deciding how to present them. For example, several students in a course taught by one of the authors identified substantial discrepancies among sources of lake depth data. Ultimately, the search for a scientific “truth” led students to further question: How can we rationalize this? What “facts” should be given on the page when there is conflicting information? How do we report conflicting information while staying within the Wikipedia guidelines for unbiased reporting? Recognizing that conflicting evidence may exist in the scientific literature and critically evaluating which sources are reliable to provide encyclopedic information are possible learning outcomes that Wikipedia assignments can help to both teach and assess.

In addition to facilitating critical thinking, Wikipedia assignments can help students gain understanding of and confidence in the iterative scientific writing process ( Rayner et al., 2014 ). As students move through drafts to the final stages of a Wikipedia assignment, they transition from first learning through writing to then writing to communicate. Removal of scientific “jargon,” linking to existing pages, and simplifying text can help the students better understand complex information. By emphasizing quality over quantity of content added, instructors work with students to identify the essential information to focus on what readers need to know, rather than what readers could know. Wikipedia pages (like all encyclopedia entries) should be thought of as points of entry to concepts, so it is important to make sure the essential information is prioritized. This style of writing is more technical and concise, and also less narrative, than students might experience when writing in their other courses. Many undergraduate students will never publish a research paper or manuscript, but they will likely need to create some form of written content for a general audience in the course of their careers. Learning to write for different audiences, such as subject-matter experts and the public, is crucial, and is accomplished with Wikipedia-based assignments. Finally, Wikipedia assignments can include valuable training on editing writing when students must modify text in response to feedback from a variety of readers. Learning to understand what is meant from feedback and how to respond to and give respectful and constructive critical feedback is a valuable scientific skill that forms the basis of peer review.

The Adaptability of Wikipedia Assignments to Varied Learning Environments and Learning Objectives

A key strength of a Wikipedia assignment is its flexibility, which can be adapted for use in a wide range of learning environments and to address a variety of learning objectives. This adaptability was exemplified by the 15 courses that were supported through our 2020–2021 faculty mentoring network, which were diverse in subject, class demographics, and delivery method.

The 15 supported courses were offered at 14 institutions across North America, ranging from small liberal arts colleges to large, research-intensive, doctorate-granting institutions. Three of the 13 American institutions are identified as minority serving institutions by the Rutgers Graduate School of Education, 2020 . While all 15 courses addressed topics related to the environmental sciences and ecology, they ranged from broad survey courses in limnology, aquatic ecology, and the aquatic environment, to more specialized courses such as stream ecology and ecotoxicology. Most courses focused entirely on aquatic sciences and emphasized inland waters, while others (e.g., Climate Change, Ecotoxicology) spanned several ecosystem types. The majority of the courses were primarily scientifically focused, although two included aspects of environmental management and one was a science course designed for non-science majors. While all courses were geared to upper-year undergraduate or graduate students, several included a mix of students at both academic stages. Class sizes ranged from seven to 30 students, with an average size of 18 students per class, and students worked individually, in pairs, or in small groups of up to four students to complete their Wikipedia assignments. Due to the on-going COVID-19 pandemic, most courses were offered virtually, while some were offered only in-person and others followed a hybrid model that included elements of both virtual and in-person instruction. In all cases, the instructors who participated in our faculty mentoring network were able to tailor their Wikipedia assignment to their learning environment, for example, by curating a list of topical Wikipedia articles for their students, focusing on ecosystems near their institution, or adjusting the amount of student interaction that was required during the assignment.

The 14 instructors that participated in our faculty mentoring network in 2020–2021 were also diverse with respect to their career stage and prior teaching experience. Participants included senior-level tenured faculty, as well as faculty within the first five years of their appointments. Most participating instructors had not previously used Wikipedia-based activities in their courses, but prior teaching experience ranged widely; while some instructors had taught at the post-secondary level for many years, at least one instructor was teaching a post-secondary course as the senior instructor for the first time.

Wikipedia assignments can also be easily tailored to address a wide range of learning objectives, and can be adapted to the learning level of the students by adding (or removing) elements or complexity (see Table 1 for examples). For instance, an assignment can be made more advanced by increasing the amount of text that is required, or can be made less advanced by instead focusing on adding media or missing citations to an existing article. In all courses supported through our network, students either edited an existing Wikipedia article or wrote a new article to meet the learning objectives specific to their course. Although the learning objectives varied widely among the supported courses, we identified a number from the course syllabi that were shared by multiple courses:

www.frontiersin.org

Table 1. Learning objectives shared by multiple courses participating in the faculty mentoring network, and elements of a Wikipedia assignment that can be used to support those learning objectives.

1. Developing scientific and technical writing skills . Effectively writing scientific and technical documents, such as journal articles, protocols, and reports, requires a specific writing style characterized by clarity, brevity, and neutrality. This writing style is also used by the community of Wikipedians (i.e., volunteer editors of Wikipedia articles) who follow the Wikipedia Manual of Style 5 . By writing and editing Wikipedia articles, students were therefore able to practice and develop their scientific and technical writing skills.

2. Communicating scientific knowledge to the public . Wikipedia is the most common source of introductory information on a topic, and has the potential to share scientific knowledge more equitably than traditional methods of dissemination, such as journal articles or reports. Therefore, Wikipedia can be a tool to improve public knowledge on a range of scientific topics ( Brossard, 2013 ; Kincaid et al., 2020 ). Articles are held to a high standard of public accessibility and readability by the community of Wikipedians. Course assignments supported the development of plain-language communication skills as students interpreted complex scientific concepts for the public, and explained them in accessible language that met the standards of Wikipedia.

3. Thinking critically . Successful completion of Wikipedia editing or writing assignments requires students to critically review and evaluate information from multiple sources, and to resolve any inconsistencies. This can require an evaluation of diverse sources of information and decision-making regarding what information to include. This provided the opportunity for students to critically review, assess, and evaluate existing and new information in their assigned Wikipedia articles.

4. Researching and resourcing information . Students were tasked with identifying appropriate references and information to back up their Wikipedia contribution. They also reviewed any existing article text, assessed the suitability of its references, and removed or replaced any inappropriate or out-of-date references. Although the citation styles used by Wikipedia tend to be more journalistic in form, as opposed to the formal citation styles used in academic writing, the importance of locating and citing appropriate sources to back up statements of fact remains the same as in an academic paper. Wikipedia assignments also provided an opportunity for students to evaluate information equity and access to scientific information; for example, the value to the public of open source information versus information stored behind paywalls.

5. Developing digital skills . It is critical that students learn how to find, evaluate, and communicate information online. Wikipedia editing and writing assignments allowed students to develop these skills while also navigating online training modules, resources, and comment pages that were facilitated by the WikiEdu support team.

6. Developing an awareness of diversity and representation in science . Minoritized individuals are under-represented both in terms of the numbers of editors actively contributing to Wikipedia ( Koerner, 2019 ), and the number of articles about them ( Wagner et al., 2016 ; Gupta and Trehan, 2021 ). In articles on STEM topics, minoritized individuals are even less equitably represented ( Salam, 2019 ). Several courses explicitly focused on increasing the awareness and representation of minoritized scientists during their Wikipedia editing assignment by writing biographies of notable scientists from under-represented groups, while others focused on including references that were written by members of under-represented groups. For example, students updated Wikipedia pages about lakes to include Indigenous place names that had been given to those lakes prior to colonization(e.g., Green Lake in Wisconsin, United States 6 ), and added sections that discussed the broader significance of waterbodies (e.g., the cultural history of the Chilcotin River in western Canada 7 ).

Findings: Instructor-Reported Successes, Challenges, and Resources

While there are compelling reasons to include Wikipedia assignments in STEM courses, we recognize that instructors may face challenges with incorporating novel assignments into existing or planned courses. We note some common instructor challenges and offer resources to help overcome those challenges, based on our experience both as instructors of courses that have used Wikipedia assignments and as members of WikiProject Limnology and Oceanography ( Table 2 and Supplementary Material ). In particular, we share resources we have developed to introduce instructors to Wikipedia assignments, including two handouts on how to manage Wikipedia assignments ( Supplementary Material: WP L&O Managing Assignments, Supplementary Material: WP L&O Resources for Wiki Assignments), a handout about selecting articles to edit ( Supplementary Material: WP L&O Selecting Articles), and a handout on maintaining student engagement ( Supplementary Material: WP L&O Student Engagement). We also include handouts that address specific technical questions about using Wikipedia in the classroom, such as how to draft articles in the sandbox ( Supplementary Material: WP L&O The Sandbox), how to add images to Wikipedia ( Supplementary Material: WP L&O Adding Images), what a sample schedule for a Wikipedia assignment might look like ( Supplementary Material: Wikipedia Term Assignment Schedule), a guide for expert reviewers of student work on Wikipedia ( Supplementary Material: WP L&O Reviewer Guide), and an example of a Wikipedia assignment description and rubric ( Supplementary Material: Wikipedia Evaluation and Editing). We also share data from courses taught in Fall 2020 and Spring 2021 to provide quantitative context about Wikipedia assignments ( Figure 2 ).

www.frontiersin.org

Table 2. Challenges reported by instructors, with resources to overcome those challenges and specific citations or links to access those resources.

www.frontiersin.org

Figure 2. Examples of student edits to Wikipedia in two of the courses taught by members of the Wikipedia Limnology & Oceanography faculty mentoring network that highlight the range of possible student edits and Wikipedia assignment complexity. Shaded text highlights student additions to each article, with different color shading indicating different student editors. The article on the Lumber River (A) was edited by two students, who jointly added 217 words and 2 references to the article, while the article on the Eklutna Glacier (B) was edited by one student, who added 2183 words and 19 references to the article.

While we focus on universal challenges that instructors could encounter when using a Wikipedia assignment, we want to also highlight that Wikipedia assignments can take many forms. As a minimal example, an instructor could assign students a Wikipedia article related to course content to read and evaluate and then discuss strengths and weaknesses of the article during a class period or via an asynchronous discussion board. A more involved assignment could include a subsequent step where students do research about the article topic and suggest edits or improvements to the article. A third assignment level could require students to edit an existing Wikipedia article, with varying levels of editing required, based on instructor discretion. These edits could range from adding a handful of references or sentences or adding informative images, to adding new sections or paragraphs, creating new diagrams or other imagery, and including multiple references to substantially improve an existing article. Finally, the most time-consuming option is to have students create a new Wikipedia article on a topic not currently covered by Wikipedia, which is most likely appropriate for advanced undergraduate or graduate students. Depending on the instructor’s preference, students can keep their edits in their “sandbox,” a space on Wikipedia for drafting edits that is still public-facing, or students can be asked to publish their edits to the Wikipedia article so that they are live. Additionally, students can either work alone or in pairs or groups to complete the assignment. The WikiEdu platform allows for a range of possibilities for designing a Wikipedia assignment (see Figure 2 for examples). As an example, assignments can range in effort from a group assignment where students work together to make small changes to an article ( Figure 2A ) to an individual assignment where students work alone to make substantial additions to an article ( Figure 2B ). Based on our teaching experiences, editing an existing Wikipedia article or creating a new article are both equivalent to assigning a term paper, in terms of the effort required by students to complete the assignment. Wikipedia assignments can therefore be adapted to meet the learning objectives of a course and the needs of the instructor(s) and students.

Notably, Wikipedia assignments combine the skill-building of a writing assignment with the societal impact of a science communication or outreach assignment. For the courses taught by instructors in our faculty mentoring network, students added an average of 670 words to a Wikipedia article, with a maximum course average of 1,590 words added per student ( Figure 3 ). Students added an average of seven references to the articles they edited, with a maximum of 20 references added ( Figure 3 ). While it is tempting to compare these values to similar word or citation counts for a more standard written assignment, it is important to note that due to the concise nature of encyclopedic writing, quality of edits should be prioritized over quantity. While the number of words or citations might be comparable to a typical written assignment, Wikipedia assignments can have outsized effects on how student work is seen and valued. For example, in the courses taught by instructors in our faculty mentoring network, the average article edited by students received nearly 8500 views in the 2 months following the course (roughly 140 views per day). Article views ranged from 67 to nearly 78,000 per student article, encompassing a far broader impact than a typical paper that is seen only by the instructor and perhaps fellow students in the course. Writing for an audience beyond the members of a course can provide an incentive for students to produce high-quality work.

www.frontiersin.org

Figure 3. Boxplot summaries of Wikipedia articles edited by students in courses taught by instructors in our faculty mentoring network during Fall 2020 and Spring 2021. Article views are tabulated for the two months following the end of the course.

In addition to these quantitative measures of Wikipedia assignment impact, instructors reported qualitative measures of student engagement and learning outcomes. For example, one instructor said that students “had more positive feedback on this assignment and were more motivated than on assignments where only the professor would have seen their final product.” Another instructor reported that, based on a question asked in their course evaluations, students agreed that the Wikipedia assignment improved their ability to communicate scientific topics to the public. Instructors reported that students were attracted to the idea of the Wikipedia assignment having a broader impact, saying “it was surprisingly clear to them how valuable this effort was in a larger societal context. In particular, they really caught on to the idea that we have unique access to scientific information both in terms of the library and our understanding of it and that we have an obligation to share that understanding.” Students also noted that while they may never author a scientific publication, they have now made a societal contribution by improving a Wikipedia article. In their course evaluation, a student concurred, saying “I think this project was an amazing opportunity to practice those research skills but gave us students way more of a reward than just a research paper to turn in. We actually created a whole Wikipedia page; I mean it still seems unreal!” Instructors also reported that the Wikipedia assignment fostered discussions about information equity, with one student sharing in their course evaluation, “The Wikipedia project gave me a better understanding of the work that goes behind sharing information with the public and how much time that takes. I had not really appreciated the position I was in as a student, having access to articles and information that the public does not have.” Finally, the Wikipedia assignment led to nuanced discussions and understanding of what constitutes a reliable source, with one student sharing in their course evaluations: “I always thought that Wikipedia was this lawless website who let anyone join and edit pages but after all the modules I had to complete I quickly understood that Wikipedia was not as horrific as my teachers had described growing up.” Overall, based on student and instructor feedback, Wikipedia assignments help students gain a more nuanced understanding about the responsibility of authorship and the reliability of sources, particularly Wikipedia.

Lessons Learned From the 2020-2021 Faculty Mentoring Network

The instructors who participated in our 2020-2021 faculty mentoring network reported a number of lessons learned that can be applied in future Wikipedia assignments to improve instructor and student experiences, not only in post-secondary courses in the aquatic sciences but in STEM courses more broadly. Herein we outline some of those key lessons that were shared by course instructors who participated in the faculty mentoring network, from both their and their students’ perspectives.

Several instructors noted that, for both instructors and students with no prior experience editing Wikipedia, the assignment involved a steep learning curve. Within the first few weeks of the assignment, students were required to set up a Wikipedia account, complete a number of training modules through the WikiEdu dashboard, and begin the process of selecting an article or topic to work on. As a result, some instructors and students reported that the assignment felt intimidating at first, and noted that it was easy for students who felt this way to fall behind in the WikiEdu training modules, causing further feelings of intimidation. Instructors emphasized that extra effort was required in the first few weeks of the assignment to ensure that students completed the training modules, and that assigning marks to the completion of training modules was a good incentive. Those instructors who had previously used Wikipedia and the WikiEdu dashboard in their courses also recognized that their confidence in teaching with Wikipedia increased in subsequent semesters, making it easier to run the assignment and manage student progress.

Students in the 15 courses that were supported by the faculty mentoring network created 22 new Wikipedia articles and edited 173 existing articles, with each student adding an average of nearly 700 words ( Figure 3 ). This represents a large amount of work that must be reviewed by the course instructor, with students in each class sometimes working on a wide range of articles and topics. Since the end goal for the assignment is often for the student’s work to be publicly posted on Wikipedia, there is a large burden on the instructor to catch any errors and provide informed, high-quality feedback on a diverse set of articles. One way to offset this workload is to pair students with expert reviewers (graduate students, technicians, faculty members, or research scientists) who can provide feedback on articles in their area of expertise, although sufficient time must be allocated in the assignment schedule for the feedback to be incorporated into the article.

The instructors who participated in our faculty mentoring network all noted that a supportive community was critical to the success of their Wikipedia assignments. Instructors were able to find community support during the 2020–2021 academic year through their participation in the WikiEdu platform, our faculty mentoring network, and an expert review process that was facilitated by the WikiProject Limnology & Oceanography team. Participation in the WikiEdu platform included access to a WikiEdu staff member who could provide technical support for the Wikipedia website and training modules, while participation in the faculty mentoring network included access to resources (e.g., those included as Supplementary Material ) and a team of colleagues who could provide support for subject-specific and classroom-specific questions. The expert review process facilitated a review of student Wikipedia articles by STEM practitioners and provided access to a broader community for both instructors and students. While instructors received help with reviewing and providing feedback on their students’ Wikipedia articles, which could span a wide range of topics, students received feedback from someone with expertise on their particular article topic which increased their confidence in the final version of their work. Participating in and interacting with a supportive community therefore improved the overall experience of both the instructors who implemented Wikipedia assignments in their courses and their students, based on feedback we received from instructors.

Instructors also realized that it was important to create a schedule for the Wikipedia assignment that allowed enough time for the students to complete all components. Many instructors noted that Wikipedia assignments worked better as a semester-long exercise, which allowed enough time for students to complete the training modules, written assignment, and peer review, along with other course work and deliverables such as exams and lab assignments. One key issue is that, if Wikipedia assignments run the length of the semester, other course work can be crowded out of the schedule. Instructors recommended that, in order to prevent this and to give students the best chance at success at both the Wikipedia assignment and the course overall, good planning and scheduling is critical.

Generally, students viewed Wikipedia editing and article writing assignments more positively than other aspects of their courses. Students seemed to be motivated by the fact that their work would be publicly-available beyond the end of the course, and viewed this as a positive aspect of the assignment relative to a traditional course assignment that would only be viewed by the instructor. Students also seemed to appreciate the opportunity to research and write about scientific topics that were important to them on a personal level. This was demonstrated in several courses where students were tasked with writing about regional waterbodies that did not have a Wikipedia entry, or that had an inadequate or incomplete entry. In some cases, students communicated with citizen groups that were associated with these waterbodies, or reached out to individuals with longstanding ties to the region, leading to discoveries and the sharing of informal but nevertheless valuable information. Although this information did not necessarily meet the standards for inclusion in a Wikipedia article, students found these interactions to be interesting and rewarding, and the interaction itself provided an alternate way for students to engage with the subject matter. The impacts of a Wikipedia assignment can therefore go beyond the assignment and generate a broader interest in science communication and public engagement for the student.

Instructors reported that their students gained a deeper appreciation of diversity and equity in science through their Wikipedia assignments. Students were given the opportunity, many for the first time, to think critically about whose voices are heard and shared when communicating science. It was noted by several students that Indigenous voices and experiences were excluded from articles about North American waterbodies, while other students endeavored to add the Indigenous names for local waterbodies to the corresponding Wikipedia pages. Students democratized access to science information by prioritizing open access resources rather than resources located behind a paywall, enabling more members of the public to access primary sources of information. Students also served as translators and interpreters of scientific information for the public. In most cases, this involved taking complex scientific concepts and applying their specialized skills and knowledge to communicate these concepts in plain-language. In two separate classes, students served as actual translators as they translated information about waterbodies in China into English, thereby making the information accessible to a broader audience. While this examination of diversity and equity in science communications was a generally positive aspect of the Wikipedia assignments, at least one student avoided adding content to Wikipedia that would have amplified the experiences of an under-represented group due to the potential removal or negative review of their work by other Wikipedians. It is important to note that editors who attempt to reduce bias and increase representation in Wikipedia articles can sometimes receive negative or hostile feedback from other Wikipedians ( Menking et al., 2019 ; Kincaid et al., 2020 ). Table 2 provides resources to mitigate negative interactions between student editors and Wikipedians.

Overall, many students reported to their instructors that their opinion of Wikipedia changed over the course of the semester. After completing the WikiEdu training modules, critically reading Wikipedia articles, assessing shortfalls, conducting research and gathering resources, and then crafting their own text or other content, students reported both more favorable and more skeptical views of Wikipedia as an information resource. Many students were surprised to learn that the community of Wikipedians adheres to a code of conduct and other guidelines when editing or adding to articles, and that posted information is constantly checked and corrected by the community. Other students were more critical of what they found on Wikipedia following the assignment, since they themselves had been able to login and edit articles. Overall, student-reported outcomes at the end of the semester suggest that students had developed a more nuanced opinion of Wikipedia, and were more aware of both its utility as a resource and the need to investigate primary sources for credibility and accuracy.

Study Limitations

In spite of the overall success of this initiative, two methodological constraints of this study of our faculty mentoring network must be considered: (1) the complex effects of COVID-19 on university courses and (2) the inherent limitations of a case study approach.

First, the 2020–2021 faculty mentoring network took place during the first full academic year of the COVID-19 pandemic. After having to pivot to online teaching on very short notice during March 2020, many of the instructors who took part in our faculty mentoring network were delivering their courses entirely online for the first time during the 2020–2021 academic year. At the same time, those instructors who taught in person during the 2020–2021 academic year, or who delivered a hybrid course with elements of both online and in-person instruction, were searching for assignments and learning activities that could be easily moved online if local circumstances surrounding the pandemic changed. Like many STEM instructors, those who participated in our faculty mentoring network were also searching for activities that could meaningfully replace labs, field trips, and other in-person activities that were no longer possible for health and safety reasons. Because of these extenuating circumstances, instructors were perhaps more willing to modify their course syllabi and try an entirely new teaching activity (and one with a fairly challenging learning curve) than during a “normal” academic year.

Second, this was not a formal research study, but rather a case study approach wherein instructor experiences were queried both while they were using Wikipedia in their courses and after their courses had ended. Instructors in both semesters shared their experiences during network team meetings, asked questions or looked for team feedback via email and a Slack channel, and accessed a set of resources that were curated by the WikiProject Limnology and Oceanography team. After each semester had ended, all instructors were asked to complete an exit survey and to share course materials (e.g., syllabi, rubrics, and assignment descriptions) that they had used in their courses. Therefore, the experiences of the 14 instructors who used Wikipedia assignments in their post-secondary aquatic science courses are fairly well-captured in this paper. On the other hand, student experiences are not adequately represented because we did not have a priori ethics approval in place to survey students or request their feedback. Although some instructors have passed along anonymous comments provided by their students during course evaluations, this has been anecdotal and informal. The reliance on instructor-reported student outcomes can be addressed during any future studies by obtaining ethics approval in advance in order to measure student success and satisfaction with Wikipedia assignments.

Overall, our 2020–2021 faculty mentoring network was a success, with all instructors reporting positive experiences during their participation in the network and using Wikipedia assignments in their aquatic science courses. Many of the instructors who participated have continued to use Wikipedia editing or article writing assignments in subsequent courses, having found the assignment to be an effective way for their students to achieve meaningful learning outcomes. We encourage instructors to consider implementing a Wikipedia assignment in their post-secondary STEM courses to support the development of critical thinking, ethical literacy, science communication, and scientific writing skills.

Data Availability Statement

The original contributions presented in this study are included in the article/ Supplementary Material , further inquiries can be directed to the corresponding authors.

Author Contributions

EL and JG co-led the drafting and editing of the manuscript and are joint first authors. All other authors contributed ideas and substantial revisions to manuscript drafts. MA, JAB, JEB, VC, JG, EL, TL, CL, EN, AR, AS, and MV participated in the faculty mentoring network, and KB and EG participated as course instructors, with all providing reflections on instructor challenges and successes with Wikipedia assignments. JB, KH, DK, EL, and AS helped found WikiProject Limnology & Oceanography and helped support the faculty mentoring network activities. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version.

The 2020–2021 Faculty Mentoring Network was funded by the Wikimedia Foundation Project Grant titled “WikiProject Limnology and Oceanography - Recruiting Aquatic Editors” ( https://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Grants:Project/WikiProject_Limnology_and_Oceanography/recruiting_aquatic_editors ). The Wikimedia Foundation Project Grant was also used to fund the creation of informational videos. Funding for EcoDAS XIII and for open access publication fees were provided by Ecological Dissertations in the Aquatic Sciences (Eco-DAS) funding provided by the NSF Biological Oceanography Program (Awards OCE-1356192 and OCE-1925796) and the Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO). MA acknowledges funding from NSF DEB-1713502. DK acknowledges funding from NSF EAR-2012123 and NSF EAR-2033995. AS acknowledges funding from NSF DBI-1906381. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a program sponsored by the National Science Foundation and operated under cooperative agreement by Battelle Memorial Institute. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation through the NEON program.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Publisher’s Note

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

Acknowledgments

We thank Jacob Zwart for his vision and leadership in founding and supporting the work of WikiProject Limnology & Oceanography and for his feedback on this manuscript. We also thank the two reviewers for their helpful suggestions and comments.

Supplementary Material

The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/feduc.2022.905777/full#supplementary-material

  • ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:WikiProject_Limnology_and_Oceanography
  • ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:About_the_sandbox
  • ^ https://wikiedu.org/
  • ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:List_of_guidelines
  • ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Manual_of_Style
  • ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Green_Lake_(Wisconsin&oldid=%20992398001#History
  • ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chilcotin_River&oldid=1017983811#Cultural_Significance

Apollonio, D. E., Broyde, K., Azzam, A., De Guia, M., Heilman, J., and Brock, T. (2018). Pharmacy students can improve access to quality medicines information by editing wikipedia articles. BMC Med. Educ. 18:265. doi: 10.1186/s12909-018-1375-z

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Bhatt, I., and Mackenzie, A. (2019). Just google it! Digital literacy and the epistemology of ignorance. Teach. High. Educ. 24, 302–317. doi: 10.1080/13562517.2018.1547276

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Brossard, D. (2013). New media landscapes and the science information consumer. PNAS 110, 14096–14101. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1212744110

Callis, K. L., Christ, L. R., Resasco, J., Armitage, D. W., Ash, J. D., Caughlin, T. T., et al. (2009). Improving wikipedia: educational opportunity and professional responsibility. Trends Ecol. Evol. 24, 177–179. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2009.01.003

Coffin Murray, M., and Pérez, J. (2014). Unraveling the digital literacy paradox: how higher education fails at the fourth literacy. IISIT 11, 85–100. doi: 10.28945/1982

Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., and Archer, W. (2001). Critical thinking, cognitive presence, and computer conferencing in distance education. Am. J. Distance Educ. 15, 7–23. doi: 10.1080/08923640109527071

Garrison, D. R., and Arbaugh, J. B. (2007). Researching the community of inquiry framework: review, issues, and future directions. Internet High. Educ. 10, 157–172. doi: 10.1016/j.iheduc.2007.04.001

Gupta, S., and Trehan, K. (2021). Twitter reacts to absence of women on wikipedia: a mixed-methods analysis of #VisibleWikiWomen campaign. Media Asia 49, 130–154. doi: 10.1080/01296612.2021.2003100

Jemielniak, D., and Aibar, E. (2016). Bridging the gap between wikipedia and academia. J. Assoc. Inf. Sci. Technol. 67, 1773–1776. doi: 10.1002/asi.23691

Kincaid, D. W., Beck, W. S., Brandt, J. E., Mars Brisbin, M., Farrell, K. J., Hondula, K. L., et al. (2020). Wikipedia can help resolve information inequality in the aquatic sciences. Limnol. Oceanogr. Lett. 6, 18–23. doi: 10.1002/lol2.10168

Koerner, J. (2019). Wikipedia Has a Bias Problem. Wikipedia @ 20. Available online at: https://wikipedia20.pubpub.org/pub/u5vsaip5/release/8 (accessed January 3, 2022).

Google Scholar

Konieczny, P. (2021). From adversaries to allies? The uneasy relationship between experts and the wikipedia community. She Ji J. Design Econ. Innov. 7, 151–170. doi: 10.1016/j.sheji.2020.12.003

Koziura, A., Starkey, J. M., and Rabinovitch-Fox, E. (2020). Teaching Wikipedia: A Model for Critical Engagement with Open Information. Available online at: https://milnepublishing.geneseo.edu/openpedagogyapproaches/chapter/teaching-wikipedia-a-model-for-critical-engagement-with-open-information/ (accessed January 3, 2022).

Menking, A., Erickson, I., and Pratt, W. (2019). “People who can take it: how women wikipedians negotiate and navigate safety,” in Proceedings of the 2019 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems CHI ’19 , (New York, NY: Association for Computing Machinery), 1–14. doi: 10.1145/3290605.3300702

NGSS Lead States (2013). Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18290

Radtke, P. J., and Munsell, J. F. (2010). Wikipedia as a tool for forestry outreach. J. Forestry 108, 354–359. doi: 10.1093/jof/108.7.354

Rayner, G., Papakonstantinou, T., Gleadow, R., and Abbott, K. (2014). Iterative writing programs may generate higher student confidence about their ability to write, but not necessarily improved writing ability. J. Acad. Lang. Learn. 8, A60–A71.

Rutgers Graduate School of Education (2020). List of Minority Serving Institutions, January 2020. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Graduate School of Education.

Salam, M. (2019). Most Wikipedia Profiles Are of Men. This Scientist Is Changing That. New York, NY: The New York Times.

Shane-Simpson, C., and Brooks, P. J. (2016). The dos and don’ts of wikipedia editing in the undergraduate psychology classroom. APS Observer 29, 32–33.

Stachelek, J., Hondula, K., Kincaid, D., and Shogren, A. (2020). Ripples on the web: spreading lake information via wikipedia. Limnol. Oceanogr. Bull. 29, 70–72. doi: 10.1002/lob.10382

Vetter, M. A., McDowell, Z. J., and Stewart, M. (2019). From opportunities to outcomes: the wikipedia-based writing assignment. Comput. Compos. 52, 53–64. doi: 10.1016/j.compcom.2019.01.008

Wagner, C., Graells-Garrido, E., Garcia, D., and Menczer, F. (2016). Women through the glass ceiling: gender asymmetries in wikipedia. EPJ Data Sci. 5:5. doi: 10.1140/epjds/s13688-016-0066-4

Keywords : community of inquiry, limnology, oceanography, faculty mentoring network, science communication, digital skills, online education, information literacy

Citation: Gareis JAL, Larson EI, Ardón M, Berges JA, Brandt JE, Busch KM, Chraibi VLS, Gallagher EN, Hondula KL, Kincaid DW, Levine TD, Little CJ, Nodine ER, Rock AM, Shogren AJ and Vanni MJ (2022) Using Wikipedia Assignments to Teach Critical Thinking and Scientific Writing in STEM Courses. Front. Educ. 7:905777. doi: 10.3389/feduc.2022.905777

Received: 27 March 2022; Accepted: 30 May 2022; Published: 28 June 2022.

Reviewed by:

Copyright © 2022 Gareis, Larson, Ardón, Berges, Brandt, Busch, Chraibi, Gallagher, Hondula, Kincaid, Levine, Little, Nodine, Rock, Shogren and Vanni. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) . The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Jolie A. L. Gareis, [email protected] ; Erin I. Larson, [email protected]

This article is part of the Research Topic

Innovations in Remote and Online Education by Hydrologic Scientists

Chapman University Digital Commons

  • < Previous

Home > Wilkinson > History > History Faculty News Articles and Blogs > 147

History Faculty News Articles and Blogs

My Good Deed This Year? A Wikipedia Assignment

Shira Klein , Chapman University Follow

Document Type

Publication date.

"Wikipedia assignments can double as social justice opportunities, a handy thing for faculty with young kids and any other instructors pressed for time.

For nine years now, I’ve been assigning Wiki-editing projects in my History classes. Normally, I have students find a reliable secondary source, summarize it, and incorporate it into a Wikipedia article of their choice.

This semester, I made a little tweak: I told students about some of the inequalities on Wikipedia."

This article was originally published on the Wiki Education blog in 2021.

This scholarship is part of the Chapman University COVID-19 Archives .

Recommended Citation

Klein, Shira. “My Good Deed This Year? A Wikipedia Assignment.” Wiki Education, June 29, 2021. https://wikiedu.org/blog/2021/06/29/my-good-deed-this-year-a-wikipedia-assignment/

Creative Commons License

Since July 06, 2021

Included in

Curriculum and Instruction Commons , Curriculum and Social Inquiry Commons , Educational Methods Commons , Educational Technology Commons , Higher Education Commons , Other Education Commons , Other History Commons , Social and Philosophical Foundations of Education Commons

  • Collections
  • Disciplines

Advanced Search

  • Notify me via email or RSS

Author Corner

  • Rights and Terms of Use
  • Leatherby Libraries
  • Chapman University

ISSN 2572-1496

Home | About | FAQ | My Account | Accessibility Statement

Privacy Copyright

  • Locations and Hours
  • UCLA Library
  • Research Guides
  • Research Tips and Tools

Wikipedia: Editing and Use

  • Wikipedia Education
  • Introduction
  • Editing Basics
  • Citing Wikipedia
  • Literature about Wikipedia
  • Galleries, Libraries, Archives, Museums (GLAM)
  • Global Women Wikipedia Write-In

Since Wikipedia began in 2001, professors around the world have integrated the free encyclopedia that anyone can edit into their curriculum. In 2010, the Wikimedia Foundation , the nonprofit which operates Wikipedia, started the Wikipedia Education Program to provide more support for professors who are interested in using Wikipedia as a teaching tool.

Read more about the Wikipedia Education Program .

"Wikipedia is an opportunity to teach students essential 21st century skills that most will use in their careers and personal lives. Wikipedia is a valuable public resource, and in a classroom environment students learn how to contribute and use it properly. Curricula can and should include Wikipedia!" Read more Reasons to use Wikipedia in teaching.

Visit the Portal for Educators for more information, including:

  • Examples of Assignment Design based on the experiences of hundreds of professors worldwide.
  • How to create a class Syllabus and examples of successful syllabi
  • Case Studies to help you form a plan for how you can use Wikipedia as a teaching tool in your class
  • Materials for Teaching (e.g. video tutorials for editing basics)

Helpful materials also inlcude the downloadable brochures “ Instructor Basics ” and “ Case Studies ” which describe best practices, learning objectives for assignments, and how to grade a Wikipedia assignment.

You can also view an online orientation for educators who are interested in using Wikipedia assignments in their classes.

We strongly suggest you to review these materials before you design the assignment with Wikipedia editing component. One important thing to note is that the style of students' writings needs to fit the encyclopedia style so that the articles would not get easily deleted by the community.

The experience of using Wikipedia for multiple class assignments is described in the article Improving Science Education and Understanding through Editing Wikipedia. by C. L. Moy, J. R. Locke, B. P. Coppola and A. J. McNeil in Journal of Chemical Education, 2010, 87 (11), 1159-1162.

See list of past and current courses in the U.S. under Wikipedia Education Program.

Research from the pilot of the Wikipedia Education Program shows 72% of students preferred a Wikipedia assignment to a traditional assignment. Students were excited to do a useful assignment for class, rather than a throwaway assignment that nobody but their professor would ever read.

  • << Previous: Other Wikimedia Initiatives
  • Next: Galleries, Libraries, Archives, Museums (GLAM) >>
  • Last Updated: Oct 2, 2023 1:27 AM
  • URL: https://guides.library.ucla.edu/wikipedia

IMAGES

  1. Why Wikipedia Class Assignment is More Engaging Than a Term Paper

    what is assignment wikipedia

  2. Temporary Duty Assignment

    what is assignment wikipedia

  3. First World Problems Meme

    what is assignment wikipedia

  4. Assignment: Earth

    what is assignment wikipedia

  5. Assignment 1 overview

    what is assignment wikipedia

  6. (PDF) Wikipedia Article (Writing Assignment)

    what is assignment wikipedia

VIDEO

  1. Miccosukee Police cruiser at an assignment (Chevy Tahoe) [FL

  2. Robert Conrad: From Famous Stunts to Controversy and Street Fighting

  3. 10 lines on Himalaya in Hindi

  4. Amelia Watson delivers an accurate review of RuneScape

  5. Ambrose Bierce: Weird Tales X Four!: (Oliver Larch, Charles Ashmore, Missing Persons, Ghosts, War)

  6. I accidentally got 1st CLASS upgrade, the FOOD is insane

COMMENTS

  1. Navigating Wikipedia like a Pro: Tips and Tricks for Efficient Research

    Are you tired of spending hours searching for reliable information online? Look no further than Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia that has become a go-to resource for millions of people worldwide.

  2. How Can I Become a Writer for Wikipedia?

    Launched in early 2001, Wikipedia is a free, Web-based encyclopedia that is fully accessible to every user. As an online reference site, it includes entries in nearly every language on a broad range of topics, from science and mathematics t...

  3. Wikipedia vs Traditional Encyclopedias: A Comparative Analysis

    In the age of digital information, Wikipedia has become a household name. It has revolutionized the way people access and consume knowledge. However, traditional encyclopedias have long been a trusted source of information.

  4. Assignment

    Financial and legal edit · Assignment (housing law), a concept that allows the transfer of a tenancy from one person to another · Assignment (law), a transfer

  5. Assignment (law)

    An assignment may not

  6. Designing a Wikipedia Writing and Research Assignment

    Explore a case study of the “classic” Wikipedia writing assignment: students work individually or in small teams to create or expand Wikipedia articles on a

  7. Teaching with Wikipedia

    Wikipedia assignments can be valuable tools to help students develop information and digital literacies, composition and editorial skills

  8. Wikipedia Article (Writing Assignment)

    There may be occasional lapses in surface features but the article is generally well-written and has few errors. The topic need not be academic but it should

  9. Using Wikipedia Assignments to Teach Critical Thinking ...

    We found that Wikipedia assignments increase students' motivation to produce high quality work and enhance their awareness of reliable

  10. "My Good Deed This Year? A Wikipedia Assignment" by Shira Klein

    "Wikipedia assignments can double as social justice opportunities, a handy thing for faculty with young kids and any other instructors

  11. Wikipedia

    Wikipedia is a user-friendly online tool to let us quickly gain a board overview on a topic. You can easily find information on many latest

  12. Write for Wikipedia

    Wikipedia Assignments. Assigning students to create an entry or edit an existing entry for Wikipedia can be a great alternative to the

  13. Run a Wikipedia assignment this Fall and help change the world

    Amid the tsunami of misinformation flooding the internet, Wikipedia remains a reliable source for those seeking knowledge. Run a Wikipedia

  14. Wikipedia: Editing and Use

    ... assignments, and how to grade a Wikipedia assignment. You can also view ... Wikipedia assignment to a traditional assignment. Students were