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How to Write a Winning Business Plan

  • Stanley R. Rich
  • David E. Gumpert

The business plan admits the entrepreneur to the investment process. Without a plan furnished in advance, many investor groups won’t even grant an interview. And the plan must be outstanding if it is to win investment funds. Too many entrepreneurs, though, continue to believe that if they build a better mousetrap, the world will beat […]

The Idea in Brief

You’ve got a great idea for a new product or service—how can you persuade investors to support it? Flashy PowerPoint slides aren’t enough; you need a winning business plan. A compelling plan accurately reflects the viewpoints of your three key constituencies: the market , potential investors , and the producer (the entrepreneur or inventor of the new offering).

But too many plans are written solely from the perspective of the producer. The problem is that, unless you’ve got your own capital to finance your venture, the only way you’ll get the funding you need is to satisfy the market’s and investors’ needs.

Here’s how to grab their attention.

The Idea in Practice

Emphasize Market Needs

To make a convincing case that a substantial market exists, establish market interest and document your claims.

Establish market interest. Provide evidence that customers are intrigued by your claims about the benefits of the new product or service:

  • Let some customers use a product prototype; then get written evaluations.
  • Offer the product to a few potential customers at a deep discount if they pay part of the production cost. This lets you determine whether potential buyers even exist.
  • Use “reference installations”—statements from initial users, sales reps, distributors, and would-be customers who have seen the product demonstrated.

Document your claims. You’ve established market interest. Now use data to support your assertions about potential growth rates of sales and profits.

  • Specify the number of potential customers, the size of their businesses, and the size that is most appropriate to your offering. Remember: Bigger isn’t necessarily better; e.g., saving $10,000 per year in chemical use may mean a lot to a modest company but not to a Du Pont.
  • Show the nature of the industry; e.g., franchised weight-loss clinics might grow fast, but they can decline rapidly when competition stiffens. State how you will continually innovate to survive.
  • Project realistic growth rates at which customers will accept—and buy—your offering. From there, assemble a credible sales plan and project plant and staffing needs.

Address Investor Needs

Cashing out. Show when and how investors may liquidate their holdings. Venture capital firms usually want to cash out in three to seven years; professional investors look for a large capital appreciation.

Making sound projections. Give realistic, five-year forecasts of profitability. Don’t skimp on the numbers, get overly optimistic about them, or blanket your plan with a smog of figures covering every possible variation.

The price. To figure out how much to invest in your offering, investors calculate your company’s value on the basis of results expected five years after they invest. They’ll want a 35 to 40% return for mature companies—up to 60% for less mature ventures. To make a convincing case for a rich return, get a product in the hands of representative customers—and demonstrate substantial market interest.

A comprehensive, carefully thought-out business plan is essential to the success of entrepreneurs and corporate managers. Whether you are starting up a new business, seeking additional capital for existing product lines, or proposing a new activity in a corporate division, you will never face a more challenging writing assignment than the preparation of a business plan.

research paper business planning

  • SR Mr. Rich has helped found seven technologically based businesses, the most recent being Advanced Energy Dynamics Inc. of Natick, Massachusetts. He is also a cofounder and has been chairman of the MIT Enterprise forum, which assists emerging growth companies.
  • DG Mr. Gumpert is an associate editor of HBR, where he specializes in small business and marketing. He has written several HBR articles, the most recent of which was “The Heart of Entrepreneurship,” coauthored by Howard. H. Stevenson (March–April 1985). This article is adapted from Business Plans That Win $$$ : Lessons from the MIT Enterprise Forum, by Messrs. Rich and Gumpert (Harper & Row, 1985). The authors are also founders of Venture Resource Associates of Grantham, New Hampshire, which provides planning and strategic services to growing enterprises.

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International Journal of Professional Business Review

A study on the contribution that a business plan makes to the expansion of a small company

  • Roshan Baa Department of Commerce

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution of business plan in the expansion of small company. No matter how big or small a business is or what stage it is in,it needs a business plan to improve how it runs internally and to describe and market the business to possible outside investors.

Theoretical framework: A business plan gives the company direction and brings employees together to work towards the same goals. When everyone works together, it's easier to manage time and resources and set the company up for growth. Planning is a big part of how successful a new or small business will be. Setting goals and making plans to reach those goals are two important parts of running a successful business. A business plan is a good way for a company to organize its goals and objectives in a way that makes sense.

Design/methodology/approach: This is descriptive based study. In this research paper we survey on random sample of 250 respondents.

Findings: This study reveals the descriptive statistics for different variables i.e. Business planning, Completed plan, Number of employees, Obtained external capital, Attractive products etc. The findings of this study could be used to figure out how businesses should be run, what methods should be used, and what parameters should be used to make sure businesses grow well in their local, regional, and global areas.

Conclusion: In more rural and remote parts of the country, the expansion of small companies is essential to the continued employment creation and economic expansion. They contribute to a greater level of market competition.

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Ramdan, M.R., Abdullah, N.L., Isa, R.M., & Hanafiah, M.H. (2020). Meneroka Faktor-faktor yang Mempengaruhi Penggunaan Platform Digital oleh Perusahaan Mikro dan Kecil. Jurnal Pengurusan (UKM Journal of Management), 59, 1-17

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Dudin, M.N., Ivashchenko, N.P., Gurinovich, A.G., Tolmachev, O.M., & Sonina, L.A. (2019). Environmental entrepreneurship: Characteristics of organization and development. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability, 6, 4.

Hima Bindu Kota (2018) Small businesses, big contribution

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research paper business planning

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