MLA Guide (7th edition)
The examples provided in this guide are meant to introduce you to the basics of citing sources using the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (seventh edition). For types of resources not included in this guide (e.g., government documents, manuscript collections, video recordings) and for further information about the examples included below, please consult the MLA Handbook itself , and/or a Reference Librarian . For help with layout, margins, spacing and page numbering, see the MLA Handbook (Fig. 12, page 131). Consider using RefWorks to help you track your research and automatically create a bibliography in MLA style.
If you need help with the current version of MLA, please see the guide for MLA ( 8th edition, 2016). If you are unsure which version of MLA to use, please consult with your professor.
Table of Contents:
Parenthetical Documentation Preparing the List of Works Cited A Brief Note on Footnotes and Endnotes For More Help
When using MLA documentation style, you need to reference your sources by using a combination of a list of works cited (see below) and parenthetical notation . Whenever you refer to or use another's words, facts or ideas in your paper, you are required to cite the source. Generally, brief parenthetical notations consisting of the author's last name and a page reference are sufficient. For example: (Drucker 30) .
Note: If you mention the author in your sentence, then you need only cite the page number . And if you cite more than one work by the same author , include the title of the work in your notation. For example: (Drucker, Management Cases 30) .
1. ONE AUTHOR
The character Folly denies satirizing Christianity when she says, "it is no part of my present plan to rummage through the lives of popes and priests," yet she spends much of her encomium doing just that (Erasmus 115).
2. TWO OR MORE AUTHORS
Max Weber purported that value systems could be studied "without the social scientist's own values distorting such studies" (Keat and Urry 196).
According to Russell Keat and John Urry in Social Science as Theory, Max Weber believed that value systems could be studied "without the social scientist's own values distorting such studies" (196).
Max Weber believed that individuals can objectively study values without their own values interfering with their judgment (Keat and Urry 196).
3. CORPORATE AUTHOR
Children of Central and Eastern Europe have not escaped the nutritional ramifications of iron deficiency, a worldwide problem (UNICEF 44).
4. NO AUTHOR
Marketers of health services and products will find the National Center for Health Statistics' site useful, particularly its statistics on mortality rates. Discovering a population's leading causes of death "tells the researcher a lot about its underlying health problems" ("Information to Die For" 40).
5. WORK IN AN ANTHOLOGY
Cite the author of the essay or story and not the editor of the anthology unless they are the same.
Although some critics disliked Mel Brook's 1993 parody of Robin Hood, it is actually "in the mainstream of the Robin Hood tradition" (Knight 461).
6. INDIRECT QUOTATION
Chief Joseph concluded his surrender by stating eloquently: "[.. .] I will fight no more forever" (qtd. in Safire 108).
7. ONLINE RESOURCE
If the work is not paginated, include the name of the author or editor within the context of your sentence (for example, from a discussion list).
Posting on the VICTORIA listserv, Karen O'Connell mentioned a relevant novel by Wilkie Collins that deals with the 19th-century use of arsenic as a complexion improver.
If the work is paginated, cite it as you would a print resource.
Imagine that the sentences above could somehow be synthesized and used in a single paper. The works cited page would look like this:
Erasmus, Desiderius. The Praise of Folly. Trans. Clarence H. Miller. New Haven:
Yale University Press, 1979. Print.
"Information to Die For." Marketing Health Services 22.1 (2002): 40-42. ABI/Inform.
Web. 14 Aug. 2009.
Keat, Russell, and John Urry. Social Theory as Science. 2nd ed. London: Routledge
and K. Paul, 1982. Print.
Knight, Stephen. "Robin Hood: Men in Tights: Fitting the Tradition Snugly."
Robin Hood: An Anthology of Scholarship and Criticism. Ed. Stephen
Knight. Woodbridge: D. S. Brewer, 1999. 461-467. Print.
O'Connell, Karen. "Re: Poisoning." VICTORIA. Indiana U. 3 Nov. 2000. Web.
14 Aug. 2009.
Safire, William. Lend Me Your Ears: Great Speeches in History. New York: W. W.
Norton and Company, 1992. Print.
UNICEF. Generation in Jeopardy: Children in Central and Eastern Europe and the
Former Soviet Union. Ed. Alexander Zouev. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe, 1999.
PREPARING THE LIST OF WORKS CITED
As demonstrated above, a works cited page consists of an alphabetical listing of the books, articles and other sources that you parenthetically noted in your paper. The works cited page occurs at the end of your paper; however, it is useful to create a draft of it before you begin writing. Following are typical examples of the types of references you will use in your research.
Include some or all of the following elements in your book citation:
- Author or editor
- Title (italicized)
- Translator or compiler
- Volume(s) used
- Name of series
- Place of publication, publisher, and date of publication
- Page numbers
- Name of vendor, database, or provider (italicized)
- Medium of publication consulted (e.g., Print)
- Date of access (Web only; day, month, year)
- Supplementary information and annotation
1. ONE AUTHOR OR EDITOR
Cather, Willa. The Professor's House. New York: A. A. Knopf, 1925. Print.
UNICEF. Generation in Jeopardy: Children in Central and Eastern Europe
and the Former Soviet Union. Ed. Alexander Zouev. Armonk: M. E.
Sharpe, 1999. Print.
Hudson, Valerie N., ed. Culture and Foreign Policy. Boulder: L. Rienner
Publishers, 1997. Print.
2. TWO OR MORE AUTHORS OR EDITORS
Names should be given in the order in which they appear on the title page.
Keat, Russell, and John Urry. Social Theory as Science. 2nd ed. London: Routledge
and K. Paul, 1982. Print.
Kennedy, Mary, Kathy Lubelska, and Val Walsh, eds. Making Connections: Women's
Studies, Women's Movements, Women's Lives. London: Taylor and Francis,
3. ELECTRONIC BOOK
Include the vendor, database, or provider's name (italicized) and date of access (day, month, year) .
Turam, Berna. Between Islam and the State: The Politics of Engagement. Stanford,
CA: Stanford UP, 2007. NetLibrary. Web. 14 Aug. 2009.
If the book is accessed from a SCHOLARLY PROJECT , also include the project name, place of publication, and the date of the electronic publication if available.
Child, Lydia Maria. An Appeal in Favor of that Class of Americans Called Africans.
Boston: Allen and Ticknor, 1833. Women Writers Online. Brown U. Web. 14
Knight, Stephen. "Robin Hood: Men in Tights: Fitting the Tradition Snugly."
Robin Hood: An Anthology of Scholarship and Criticism. Ed. Stephen
Barrick, Richard, John Sullivan, and Alexander White. "The American Bloody Register."
Pillars of Salt: An Anthology of Early American Criminal Narratives. Comp.
Daniel E. Williams. Madison: Madison House, 1993. 233-258. Print.
5. INTRODUCTION, PREFACE, FOREWORD, OR AFTERWORD
Ritterson, Michael. Introduction. The Odin Field: A Story. By Wilhem Raabe.
Trans. Michael Ritterson. Studies in German Literature, Linguistics, and Culture.
Rochester: Camden House, 2001. xi-xxvii. Print.
6. MULTIVOLUME WORK
Tomkins, Silvan S. Affect, Imagery, Consciousness. 4 vols. New York: Springer,
Anthony, Robert N., and James S. Reece. Accounting Principles. 7th ed. Chicago:
Irwin, 1995. Print.
Erasmus, Desiderius. The Praise of Folly. Trans. Clarence H. Miller. New Haven:
Yale, 1979. Print.
9. ARTICLE IN A REFERENCE BOOK
"Audubon, John James." The New Encyclopaedia Britannica: Micropaedia. 15th
ed. 2002. Print.
"Audubon, John James." Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Encyclopaedia
Britannica, 2009. Web. 14 Aug. 2009.
Ebeling, Richard, ed. Global Free Trade: Rhetoric or Reality? Hillsdale, MI: Hillsdale
College Press, 1993. Print. Champions of Freedom 20.
B. Articles in Periodicals
Include some or all of the following in your article citation:
- Article title (usually in quotation marks)
- Periodical title (italicized)
- Series/Issue number or name
- Volume number
- Issue number (if available)
- Publication date (year for scholarly journals; day, month, year for others, as available)
- Medium of publication
- Name of database (italicized and placed before medium of publication) (Web only)
- Date of access (day, month, year) (Web only)
1. SCHOLARLY JOURNAL
Freedman, L. "The Changing Forms of Military Conflict." Survival 40.4 (1998): 39-56.
Kirby, John T. "Aristotle on Metaphor." American Journal of Philology 118.4
(1997): 517-554. Print.
Online Journal -- Use n. pag. to indicate the absence of inclusive page numbers.
Ketabgian, Tamara. Rev. of The Body Economic: Life, Death, and Sensation in
Political Economy and the Victorian Novel, by Catherine Gallagher. Bryn Mawr
Review of Comparative Literature 6.2 (2007): n. pag. Web. 19 Aug. 2009.
Chan, Winnie. "Curry on the Divide in Rudyard Kipling's Kim and Gurinder Chadha's
Bend it Like Beckham." ARIEL: A Review of International English
Literature 36.3-4 (2005): 1-23. Web. 14. Aug. 2009.
Full text of an article from a Database -- Include the name of the database, the name of the database provider and the date of access. Use n. pag. to indicate the absence of inclusive page numbers.
Freedman, Lawrence. "The Changing Forms of Military Conflict." Survival 40.4 (1998):
39-56. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 14 Aug. 2009.
Kirby, John T. "Aristotle on Metaphor." American Journal of Philology 118.4 (1997):
517-554. JSTOR. Web. 14 Aug. 2009.
Monthly or Bimonthly
Goldberger, Paul. "Machines for Living: Architectonic Allure of the Automobile."
Architectural Digest Oct. 1996: 82.
Levy, Steven, and Brad Stone. "Silicon Valley Reboots." Newsweek 25 Mar.
2002: 42-50. Print.
2002: 42-50. Academic Search Premier. Web. 14 Aug. 2009.
3. ANONYMOUS ARTICLE
"Information to Die For." Marketing Health Services 22.1 (2002): 40-42. Print.
"Information to Die For." Marketing Health Services 22.1 (2002): 40-42. ABI/Inform. 14 Aug. 2009.
Pianin, Eric. "Use of Arsenic in Wood Products to End." The Washington Post 13
Feb. 2002, final ed.: A2. Print.
Pianin, Eric. "Use of Arsenic in Wood Products to End." The Washington Post 13 Feb.
2002, final ed.: A2. LexisNexis Academic. Web. 14 Aug. 2009.
Nash, Alanna. "Hit 'em with a lizard!" Rev. of Basket Case, by Carl Hiaasen. New
York Times 3 Feb. 2002, late ed., sec. 7: 24. Print.
York Times 3 Feb. 2002, late ed., sec. 7: 24. LexisNexis Academic. Web. 14
C. Web Sites
Following are elements to include when citing entire Web sites. Keep in mind that
if you cannot find all of the elements, you should include whatever is available on the site . The URL is no longer required unless locating the site requires it or your professor requires it.
- Title of Web site (italicized)
- Site publisher/sponsor
- Date of site's publication (if none, use n.d. )
- Date of access (day, month, year)
1. SCHOLARLY PROJECT
Crane, Gregory, ed. Perseus Digital Library. Dept. of the Classics, Tufts U.
n.d. Web. 14 Aug. 2009.
2. PROFESSIONAL SITE
Financial Accounting Standards Board . Feb. 2002. Web. 14 Aug. 2009.
3. PERSONAL SITE
Lewis, Paul. The Wilkie Collins Pages. n.d. Web. 14 Aug. 2009.
See also Electronic Book and Periodicals above.
D. Online Postings
To cite a posting from a discussion list, include the following elements if available:
- Author of posting
- Title of posting (from subject line of posting, in quotes)
- Name of discussion list
- Date of posting
- 5. Medium of publication
- Date of access
O'Connell, Karen. "Re: Poisoning." VICTORIA. Indiana U. 3 Nov. 2000. Web.
A BRIEF NOTE ON FOOTNOTES AND ENDNOTES
Long explanatory footnotes or endnotes can distract the reader. Nevertheless, you may occasionally need to clarify a citation with a bibliographic note . Or you may wish to incorporate information that might interest your reader but which would seem tangential if included within the text of your paper. In this case, you would use a content note. Notes are indicated with consecutive superscript numbers within the text of your paper. The actual note is indented and can occur either as a footnote at the bottom of the page or as an endnote at the end of the paper.
1. BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTE
Nineteenth-century critics of cheap, mass-produced fiction feared that the gory subject matter of stories like Sweeney Todd would lead a generation of youth into depravity. 1
1 For a selection of penny fiction as well as 19th-century criticism of it, see
Haining's The Penny Dreadful .
2. CONTENT NOTE
Charles Knight did not rely solely on the cheaply printed word in publications like the Penny Magazine to educate people; he also mass-produced images to diffuse knowledge visually. 2
2 Patricia Anderson's The Printed Image and the Transformation of Popular Culture, 1790-1860 provides examples of Penny Magazine images, such as depictions of flamingos, reproduced portraits of people like Benjamin Franklin, and engravings of famous artworks like "The Dying Gladiator" and "Laocoon" (50-83).
FOR MORE HELP
Following are links to sites that have additional information and further examples:
- RefWorks : Once you have created an account, go to Tools/Preview Output Style to see examples of MLA style.
- Purdue's Online Writing Lab (OWL) : Excellent source for research, writing and citation tips.
- Citing Sources : Duke University's guide to citing sources. The site offers comparison citation tables with examples from APA , Chicago , MLA and Turabian for both print and electronic works.
- Citing Electronic Primary Sources : From the Library of Congress. Provides MLA and Turabian examples of citing formats such as films, photographs, maps and recorded sound that are accessed electronically.
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MLA 9th Edition Changes
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MLA Ninth Edition: What's New and Different
Note: This page reflects the latest version of the MLA Handbook (i.e., MLA 9), which released in April 2021. The equivalent resource for the older MLA 8 can be found here .
The Modern Language Association (MLA) updated its style manual in April 2021. The MLA Handbook is a living document hoping to meet the ever-changing needs of writers while creating uniform standards for documentation. By updating and clarifying these standards, MLA seeks to build trust in the information and ideas we share. By helping us express our ideas in a standard way in which varieties of readers can understand where we found our information and how we chose to express our own ideas, MLA hopes in an age of mistrust of information, we can use their standards to legitimize our writings. However, MLA continues to emphasize that these guidelines are simply that: guidelines. Specific circumstances, such as class formatting instructions, project demands, and additional relevant information, may give cause for appropriate deviation, something the MLA encourages.
This 9th edition focuses on clarification, guidance, and expansion on MLA 8, an edition that featured extensive changes. The use of core elements for Works Cited was designed to be more user-friendly, with built-in flexibility that allows writers to cite their sources in ways that works best for their specific projects. MLA 9, however, provides more guidance and focus for those seeking it after the last update, especially warranted with emerging sources, digital and otherwise. While retaining the overhauled system of core elements for documentation of MLA 8, MLA 9 responds to feedback asking for clarification and expansion on the meaning of each category (1. Author, 2. Title of Source, 3. Title of Container, 4. Contributor, 5. Version, 6. Number, 7. Publisher, 8. Publication Date, 9. Location) in different contexts of documentation.
Major Changes in the 9th Edition
While the rest of this overview will go into more detail regarding individual changes in this edition, the major changes are as follows:
- More guidance on how to use MLA core elements to create a Works Cited list by explaining the definition of each element in different types of documents (it will not always be literal), where to find each element, and how to style it. The MLA 9 was designed so that the core element strategy will become even more accessible through more examples and explanations, such as how to use notes, websites, interviews, and YouTube videos.
- A deeper dive into in-text citations, a category many users expressed struggles with.
- Reintroduction of MLA guidance on research papers, absent in MLA 8, with expanded instructions.
- A new chapter on inclusive language.
- Expanded guidelines on grammar mechanics.
After a brief, 1-edition reprieve, MLA 9 has reintroduced their guidelines for formatting a research paper. General formatting guidance has remained consistent from MLA 7 while this edition expands upon table, illustration, and list formatting.
Grammar and Mechanics
Updates have been provided on spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and use of italics in prose. MLA 9 confirms that various spellings are acceptable but must be used consistently, except in quotations from another text. It also provides guidance on using plurals correctly. It provides in-depth examples of the correct and incorrect uses of commas, colons, dashes and parentheses, hyphens, apostrophes, and slashes. The chapter also asserts the use of italics for emphasis, word references, letters referred to as letters, and foreign words. Finally, MLA provides extensive examples of how to correctly format names of persons, organizations or groups, titles of works, and numbers into your writing.
This new chapter on inclusive language recommends focusing on relevance, precision, respectfulness, thoughtfulness, and awareness of exclusionary pronouns, judgement, and offensive terms. Through these general principles, writers are encouraged to think critically about their language, contexts, and audiences.
This section focuses on recognizing and avoiding plagiarism through quoting, paraphrasing, and identifying when documentation is optional. It expands beyond common knowledge as a reason for omitting documentation and introduces passing mentions, allusions, and epigraphs.
Works Cited Page
Works Cited guidance is one of the most widely-used elements of the MLA Handbook. Appropriately, this section features the most updates, responsive to users seeking more guidance, details, and examples on the aforementioned MLA 8 overhaul that introduced the core element template. Consequently, each element is defined, including the range of situations it applies to. There is also guidance on how to find information, such as “publication” in a variety of sources. Finally, more advice is given on how to style details of these elements in a Works Cited.
Added Guidance on Core Template Elements
- Author : how to cite pseudonyms, name changes, and stage names; how to cite works by the same author published under different names; and how to style the names of authors of government publications.
- Title of source : how to provide a description instead of a title; how to effectively and appropriately shorten a title; how to list titled and untitled front and back information, such as introduction, foreword, and afterword; and how to use mechanics to correctly style titles of various sources including website containers, apps, and databases.
- Contributor (formerly “Other Contributors”) : how to distinguish between key and other contributors; and how to document a source with multiple, same-role contributors.
- Versions : how to identify the “version” in various types of works including e-books.
- Number : how to find “number” in various works such as books, print journals, database articles, PDF journal articles, television shows, and podcasts; how to style numbers through form (spelled out, numerals, numbers) and mechanics within the Works Cited page.
- Publisher : how to identify what constitutes a publisher; how to list governmental agencies and nongovernmental organizations; and how to abbreviate publishers’ names.
- Publication Date : how to identify what constitutes non-traditional date types, such as personal letters, revisions of online works, attendance of live events, and the label “forthcoming” for works yet to be published; dictates to lowercase season with publication date, for example, fall, 2021.
- Location : how to find location in print, online, unique works viewed or heard firsthand, and physical media other than print works; it also makes URLs optional.
Beyond the core elements are supplemental elements, previously titled “Optional Elements.” The change in name reflects the fact that different circumstances will dictate whether or not these elements are necessary for readers.
While the guidance regarding in-text citation has not changed, the MLA 9’s adjusted approach seeks to reduce the confusion about in-text citations. This chapter explains the need for unambiguous, consistent references to the Works Cited. It also expands on how to style parenthetical citations with quotation marks. A new section, “When Author and Title are not Enough,” helps users navigate works when an author has more than one work of the same title. Finally, expanded guidance on subheads, multiple works, referencing items such as symbols or figure numbers, and quoting the same passage multiple times has been added.
This new section explains when and how to use notes to provide commentary or additional information. It also explains where and how to place notes in text.
A section has been added that offers guidance for annotated bibliographies. Annotations are succinct descriptions and/or evaluations of a source. Sources should be styled no differently from a list of works cited. However, annotations should be appended at the end of an entry, with one-inch indentations from where the entry begins. Annotations may be written as concise phrases or complete sentences and typically do not exceed one paragraph.
This update includes fewer large overhauls to the methods of MLA 8. MLA 9 instead focuses on providing specificities and examples to each element. This version continues giving writers freedom to judge the appropriate information needed for their specific projects while adding more guidance for readers looking for it. Through MLA 9, users will better understand the following:
- What the core elements look like in different types of works, both traditional and nontraditional.
- How to use in-text citations effectively.
- How to be conscious of the effect on various audiences of gender-specific terms, stereotyped language, people-first language, pronouns, and capitalization.
- What does and does not constitute plagiarism.
- How to format a research paper.
- How to correctly use grammar mechanics.
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Relied on by generations of writers, the MLA Handbook is the only official, authorized book on MLA format. The ninth edition builds on the MLA’s unique approach to documenting sources using a template of core elements—facts, common to most sources, like author, title, and publication date—that allows writers to cite any type of work, from books, e-books, and journal articles in databases to song lyrics, online images, YouTube videos , dissertations, and more. Emphasizing source evaluation as the cornerstone of citation, MLA style promotes the crucial skills of information and digital literacy.
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MLA Format | Complete Guidelines & Free Template
Published on December 11, 2019 by Raimo Streefkerk . Revised on June 16, 2022 by Jack Caulfield.
The MLA Handbook provides guidelines for creating MLA citations and formatting academic papers. This quick guide will help you set up your MLA format paper in no time.
Start by applying these MLA format guidelines to your document:
- Times New Roman 12
- 1″ page margins
- Double line spacing
- ½” indent for new paragraphs
- Title case capitalization for headings
Download Word template Open Google Docs template
(To use the Google Docs template, copy the file to your Drive by clicking on ‘file’ > ‘Make a copy’)
Table of contents
How to set up mla format in google docs, header and title, running head, works cited page, creating mla style citations, headings and subheadings, tables and figures, frequently asked questions about mla format.
The header in MLA format is left-aligned on the first page of your paper. It includes
- Your full name
- Your instructor’s or supervisor’s name
- The course name or number
- The due date of the assignment
After the MLA header, press ENTER once and type your paper title. Center the title and don’t forget to apply title-case capitalization. Read our article on writing strong titles that are informative, striking and appropriate.
For a paper with multiple authors, it’s better to use a separate title page instead.
At the top of every page, including the first page, you need to include your last name and the page number. This is called the “running head.” Follow these steps to set up the MLA running head in your Word or Google Docs document:
- Double-click at the top of a page
- Type your last name
- Insert automatic page numbering
- Align the content to the right
The running head should look like this:
The Works Cited list is included on a separate page at the end of your paper. You list all the sources you referenced in your paper in alphabetical order. Don’t include sources that weren’t cited in the paper, except potentially in an MLA annotated bibliography assignment.
Place the title “Works Cited” in the center at the top of the page. After the title, press ENTER once and insert your MLA references.
If a reference entry is longer than one line, each line after the first should be indented ½ inch (called a hanging indent ). All entries are double spaced, just like the rest of the text.
Generate accurate MLA citations with Scribbr
Prefer to cite your sources manually? Use the interactive example below to see what the Works Cited entry and MLA in-text citation look like for different source types.
Headings and subheadings are not mandatory, but they can help you organize and structure your paper, especially in longer assignments.
MLA has only a few formatting requirements for headings. They should
- Be written in title case
- Be left-aligned
- Not end in a period
We recommend keeping the font and size the same as the body text and applying title case capitalization. In general, boldface indicates greater prominence, while italics are appropriate for subordinate headings.
Tip: Both Google Docs and Microsoft Word allow you to create heading levels that help you to keep your headings consistent.
Tables and other illustrations (referred to as “figures”) should be placed as close to the relevant part of text as possible. MLA also provides guidelines for presenting them.
MLA format for tables
Tables are labeled and numbered, along with a descriptive title. The label and title are placed above the table on separate lines; the label and number appear in bold.
A caption providing information about the source appears below the table; you don’t need one if the table is your own work.
Below this, any explanatory notes appear, marked on the relevant part of the table with a superscript letter. The first line of each note is indented; your word processor should apply this formatting automatically.
Just like in the rest of the paper, the text is double spaced and you should use title case capitalization for the title (but not for the caption or notes).
MLA format for figures
Figures (any image included in your paper that isn’t a table) are also labeled and numbered, but here, this is integrated into the caption below the image. The caption in this case is also centered.
The label “Figure” is abbreviated to “Fig.” and followed by the figure number and a period. The rest of the caption gives either full source information, or (as in the example here) just basic descriptive information about the image (author, title, publication year).
Source information in table and figure captions
If the caption of your table or figure includes full source information and that source is not otherwise cited in the text, you don’t need to include it in your Works Cited list.
Give full source information in a caption in the same format as you would in the Works Cited list, but without inverting the author name (i.e. John Smith, not Smith, John).
MLA recommends using 12-point Times New Roman , since it’s easy to read and installed on every computer. Other standard fonts such as Arial or Georgia are also acceptable. If in doubt, check with your supervisor which font you should be using.
The main guidelines for formatting a paper in MLA style are as follows:
- Use an easily readable font like 12 pt Times New Roman
- Set 1 inch page margins
- Apply double line spacing
- Include a four-line MLA heading on the first page
- Center the paper’s title
- Indent every new paragraph ½ inch
- Use title case capitalization for headings
- Cite your sources with MLA in-text citations
- List all sources cited on a Works Cited page at the end
The fastest and most accurate way to create MLA citations is by using Scribbr’s MLA Citation Generator .
Search by book title, page URL, or journal DOI to automatically generate flawless citations, or cite manually using the simple citation forms.
The MLA Handbook is currently in its 9th edition , published in 2021.
This quick guide to MLA style explains the latest guidelines for citing sources and formatting papers according to MLA.
Usually, no title page is needed in an MLA paper . A header is generally included at the top of the first page instead. The exceptions are when:
- Your instructor requires one, or
- Your paper is a group project
In those cases, you should use a title page instead of a header, listing the same information but on a separate page.
Cite this Scribbr article
If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.
Streefkerk, R. (2022, June 16). MLA Format | Complete Guidelines & Free Template. Scribbr. Retrieved November 20, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/mla/formatting/
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MLA Handbook 9th Edition
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Description retrieved from the Modern Language Association website at: https://www.mla.org/Publications/Bookstore/Nonseries/MLA-Handbook-Ninth-Edition
Relied on by generations of writers, the MLA Handbook is published by the Modern Language Association and is the only official, authorized book on MLA style. The new, ninth edition builds on the MLA’s unique approach to documenting sources using a template of core elements—facts, common to most sources, like author, title, and publication date—that allows writers to cite any type of work, from books, e-books, and journal articles in databases to song lyrics, online images, social media posts, dissertations, and more. With this focus on source evaluation as the cornerstone of citation, MLA style promotes the skills of information and digital literacy so crucial today.
The many new and updated chapters make this edition the comprehensive, go-to resource for writers of research papers, and anyone citing sources, from business writers, technical writers, and freelance writers and editors to student writers and the teachers and librarians working with them. Intended for a variety of classroom contexts—middle school, high school, and college courses in composition, communication, literature, language arts, film, media studies, digital humanities, and related fields—the ninth edition of the MLA Handbook offers
- New chapters on grammar, punctuation, capitalization, spelling, numbers, italics, abbreviations, and principles of inclusive language
- Guidelines on setting up research papers in MLA format with updated advice on headings, lists, and title pages for group projects
- Revised, comprehensive, step-by-step instructions for creating a list of works cited in MLA format that are easier to learn and use than ever before
- A new appendix with hundreds of example works-cited-list entries by publication format, including Web sites, YouTube videos, interviews, and more
- Detailed examples of how to find publication information for a variety of sources
- Newly revised explanations of in-text citations, including comprehensive advice on how to cite multiple authors of a single work
- Detailed guidance on footnotes and endnotes
- Instructions on quoting, paraphrasing, summarizing, and avoiding plagiarism
- A sample essay in MLA format
- Annotated bibliography examples
- Numbered sections throughout for quick navigation
- Advanced tips for professional writers and scholars
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MLA Handbook, Ninth Edition
Modern Language Association of America, New York, New York, 2021, 400 pages, paperback, $24.00; ISBN: 9781603293518
- Thomas R. Claire 1
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Claire, T.R. MLA Handbook, Ninth Edition. Pub Res Q 39 , 96–98 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12109-023-09938-0
Published : 08 February 2023
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MLA Sample Paper
Mla sample paper #1.
If you’ve been wondering how to produce a research paper that is strong in both formatting and writing, you’ve come to the right place.
Check out our first sample paper below. It is a helpful and clearly labeled visual aid to refer to. Note that while these sample papers do not include MLA abstracts , you should check with your instructor to see if an abstract should be included.
Visual Sample Paper
The example research paper below is one that was written in college for a course on the Inklings. The Inklings were a group of writers in England before WWII, including C.S. Lewis and J.R.R. Tolkien.
The abbreviated MLA paper below (linked here without annotations) is about J.R.R. Tolkien’s Lord of the Rings and how the author used myth, story, and song to link all of his works together. Tolkien is famous for creating a fantasy universe called Middle-earth, which readers can’t truly understand until they read all of the books about Middle-earth ( The Silmarillian, The Hobbit, and The Lord of the Rings ).
Since we’re here to learn how to format an essay, we’ve pointed out some important things about the paper to help you write a correctly formatted essay.
For starters, the essay is in MLA format. That means it follows the style manual of the Modern Language Association, which tells you how to format the paper itself and every source you cite. You’ll also see notes like how long a paragraph should be, how to use commas properly, and how to correctly punctuate a title. Some of these guidelines are different from those in APA format , so be sure to confirm you are using the correct style in your paper.
Pay special attention to the MLA format works cited. We only used one type of source (books), but both citations are correct according to the 9th edition of MLA, published in 2021. When you’re writing your own paper, you need to make sure you always use the most recent edition of the style manual. You’ll also want to check with your instructor to see if you need to include an MLA annotated bibliography with your paper, which contains additional information summarizing and evaluating each source after the regular citation.
Whether you need MLA, APA citations , or Chicago style notes, look up the latest edition before turning in a paper.
MLA Sample Paper #2
See below for an example paper or click below to download it as a Word Document.
The MLA header should be one inch from the top and left margins. The heading and the entire paper should be double spaced.
Eli YaffarabeProfessor Rapheor
28 August 2018
Privatization of Prisons in Texas
The privatization of governmental services has increased dramatically in the past decade as local, state, and federal agencies have searched for ways to cut costs while still meeting their mandated responsibility to provide various public services. This privatizing trend has particularly affected the criminal justice system. Since the early 1990s, privatized correctional facilities have increased significantly, nationally and statewide. This policy has far-ranging consequences not only within the criminal justice system, but as an instructive example for government officials when considering the costs and benefits of privatization as a public policy option. By 2001, thirty states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico had privately-operated correctional facilities (Austin and Coventry 4). This movement has incited considerable debate and controversy, mainly because prison privatization calls for giving the private sector direct control over the lives of a captive human population.
Surprisingly, there has been little objective and concrete analysis of the privatization of prisons in the United States. This is probably for two reasons: first, ideological arguments on the matter have pushed out substantive research, and second, because this trend has only recently accelerated in the U.S. and mainly on a state level. However, case studies and statistics at the state level are more accessible. With capacity for over 30,000 prisoners in 43 facilities, the state of Texas has privatized more of its prison system than any state in the nation (McDonald and Patten Jr. iv).
Public policy concerning the criminal justice system has become more daunting and important in the last decade. The problems in the system are twofold: an overcrowding prison population, mainly due to “three strikes” legislation and reducing early parole; and the costs of operating prisons with this growing population (Austin and Coventry). According to the most recent U.S. Department of Justice survey, slightly over 2.2 million people were incarcerated in correctional facilities in this country in 2003. In comparison, in 1993, 1.37 million people were imprisoned in this country (Beck and Harrison 1).
At the same time, the growth of privately operated correctional facilities has increased significantly in this country. Private prisons now hold 95,522 inmates in this country, which is 6.5 percent of total prisoners (Beck and Harrison 5). In Texas, 16,570 inmates (10 percent of its prison population) are held in private facilities, about 10,000 more than the next highest state. Furthermore, six states had at least 25 percent of their prison population housed in private prisons, led by New Mexico (44%), Alaska (31%), and Montana (29%). These current statistics show that while state governments have been forced to manage and operate overcrowded and over-capacity prisons at considerable costs, many have turned to the private sector to operate prisons (McDonald and Patten Jr.). According to the General Accounting Office, prison operating costs have grown steadily since 1980, increasing almost 550 percent since 1980 based on inflation-adjusted dollars (Austin and Coventry 1).
Prison privatization started in the early 1980s, ostensibly to ease the burden on taxpayers by offering financial relief to private companies to run state prisons. Thomas Beasley founded Corrections Corporation of America in 1983, “the nation’s leader in the construction and management of private prisons” (Darling). That year, Corrections Corporation of America set up the first privately-operated prison in Tennessee. Since then, the number of private
correctional facility firms has grown to 14 (Austin and Coventry 3). The privatization of prisons occurs in two ways. First, state government can contract out (or outsource) specific services in a correctional facility to a private company after a bidding process. Second, and more radically, private companies build their own privately-managed prisons and contract with state governments to house their inmates. This latter approach, giving private correctional facility firms wide latitude over inmates, is taken in the Texas criminal justice system. In fact, many of these privately operated facilities “have no relationship at all with the state governments in these states, other than an obligation to pay corporate income taxes” (McDonald and Patten Jr. v).
(Due to its length, the remainder of this sample paper is omitted).
Works Cited Page
Austin, James, and Garry Coventry. Emerging Issues on Privatized Prisons . Bureau of Justice Assistance, Feb. 2001, www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/bja/181249.pdf.
Beck, Allen J., and Paige Harrison. Prisoners in 2003 . Bureau of Justice Statistics, Nov. 2004, www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p03.pdf.
McDonald, Douglas, and Carl Patten Jr. Governments’ Management of Private Prisons . Abt Associates, 15 Sept. 2003, www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/203968.pdf.
Darling, Michael. “Pitt News: University of Pittsburgh Shouldn’t Lend Its Name to Prison Privatization.” CorpWatch , 15 Nov. 2004, corpwatch.org/article/pitt-news-univeristy-pittsburgh-shouldnt-lend-its-name-prison-privatization.
MLA Formatting Guide
- Annotated Bibliography
- Block Quotes
- et al Usage
- In-text Citations
- Page Numbers
- Sample Paper
- Works Cited
- MLA 8 Updates
- MLA 9 Updates
- View MLA Guide
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- Website (no author)
- View all MLA Examples
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An in-text citation is a short citation that is placed next to the text being cited. The basic element needed for an in-text citation is the author’s name . The publication year is not required in in-text citations. Sometimes, page numbers or line numbers are also included, especially when text is quoted from the source being cited. In-text citations are mentioned in the text in two ways: as a citation in prose or a parenthetical citation.
Citation in prose
Citations in prose are incorporated into the text and act as a part of the sentence. Usually, citations in prose use the author’s full name when cited the first time in the text. Thereafter, only the surname is used. Avoid including the middle initial even if it is present in the works-cited-list entry. An example of the first citation in prose for a source with one author is given below:
Doug Barry explains the status of the UK.
Parenthetical citations add only the author’s surname at the end of the sentence in parentheses. An example of a parenthetical citation is given below:
The status of the UK is explained (Barry).
Examples of in-text citations
Here are a few examples of in-text citations for works with various numbers and types of authors:
Use both the first name and surname of the author if you are mentioning the author for the first time in the prose. In subsequent occurrences, use only the author’s surname. Always use only the author’s surname in parenthetical citations.
Citation in prose:
First mention: Stephen George asserts …. (17).
Subsequent occurrences: George argues …. (17).
…. (George 17).
Use the first name and surname of both authors if you are mentioning the work for the first time in the prose. In subsequent occurrences, use only the surnames of the two authors. Always use only the authors’ surnames in parenthetical citations. Use “and” to separate the two authors in parenthetical citations.
First mention: Kane Williams and Clark Ronald ….
Subsequent occurrences: Williams and Ronald ….
…. (Williams and Ronald).
Three or more authors
For citations in prose, use the first name and surname of the first author followed by “and others” or “and colleagues.” For parenthetical citations, use only the surname of the first author followed by “et al.”
Krishnan Sethu and colleagues…. or Krishnan Sethu and others ….
…. (Sethu et al.).
For citations in prose, treat the corporate author like you would treat the author’s name. For parenthetical citations, shorten the organization name to the shortest noun phrase. For example, shorten the Modern Language Association of America to Modern Language Association.
The Language Literary Association of Canada….
…. (Language Literary Association).
If there is no author for the source, use the source’s title in place of the author’s name for both citations in prose and parenthetical citations.
When you add such in-text citations, italicize the text of the title. If the source title is longer than a noun phrase, use a shortened version of the title. For example, shorten the title Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them to Fantastic Beasts .
Endgame explains …. (121).
…. ( Endgame 121).
In MLA style, two types of citations are used to cite a source: a short citation used within the text (called the in-text citation) and a full citation (called the works cited list entry) within the works cited list, which appears at the end of a paper.
The works cited list entry provides the complete details of a source. An in-text citation is a short citation that is placed next to the text being cited. The in-text citation lets the reader know that the information is derived from the cited source, and helps the reader find the full citation within the works cited list.
In order to properly cite a source in MLA style, you must have both citation types in your paper. Every in-text citation has a works cited list entry. Every works cited list entry has at least one (maybe more) corresponding in-text citation.
The basic element needed for an in-text citation is the author’s surname . The publication year is not required in in-text citations. Sometimes, page numbers or line numbers are also included, especially when text is quoted from the source being cited.
First mention: Sian Anderson studies ….
Subsequent occurrences: Anderson analyzes ….
or if quoting directly:
First mention: Paul Fin and Anna Gabriel ….
Subsequent occurrences: Fin and Gabriel ….
….(Fin and Gabriel)
…(Fin and Gabriel 27)
Paul Hill and colleagues…. or Paul Hill and others ….
….(Hill et al.)
…(Hill et al. 138)
Examples of works cited list entries
Below are a few examples of different types of works cited list entries. The examples given are for one author.
Steinman, Louise. The Knowing Body: Elements of Contemporary Performance and Dance . Shambhala Publications, 1986.
Barad, K. “Nature’s Queer Performativity.” Qui Parle , vol. 19, no. 2, 2011, pp. 121–58.
Webpage of a website
Midgelow, Vida L. “Experiences and Perceptions of the Artistic Doctorate: A Survey Report.” Artistic Doctorates in Europe, 5 Feb. 2018, www.artisticdoctorates.com/2017/12/28/experiences-and-perceptions-of-the-artistic-doctorate-survey-report/ .
“Behind the Scenes Chili’s Baby Back Ribs Spot.” YouTube , uploaded by Alvin Chea, 11 Sept. 2017, www.youtube.com/watch?v=gTDLh7gNRYA .
MLA Citation Examples
Other Citation Styles
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Guide on How to Cite a Research Paper Using MLA Format: Best Tips
Understanding What is MLA Formatting
If you are a high school or college student, there will be a time when you find yourself in an ambiguous situation on how to cite a research paper in MLA. There are various formatting styles, but the most commonly used are the MLA, APA, and Chicago styles. In the article, our business essay writing services writers will teach you how to cite a research paper using MLA format correctly.
Created by college educators in the late 1800s, the MLA format was intended to encourage American students to study modern languages as classical languages were becoming less popular. Thus, they developed the format for MLA citing in research paper to determine if it would successfully promote learning modern languages.
In a nutshell, MLA is the formatting style of the Modern Language Association used in areas such as English studies, comparative literature, foreign language, and literature or cultural studies. This academic style guides extensively used in the United States, Canada, and other countries.
Research Paper in MLA Format
So, how to format a research paper in MLA style? There are four key components that a research paper in MLA format includes.
Except for the running head, page margins should be precisely 1 inch on both sides of the text as well as on top and bottom.
When writing a research paper or another academic assignment, it is recommended to use Times New Roman typeface as it is easily readable. Set the standard size, which is usually 12 points.
Change the line spacing from single to double-spaced. That makes reading less crammed on the eye and allows the professor to make essential comments in a neat and organized manner. Also, make sure to indent the first line of a paragraph ½ inch from the left margin.
Enter the required course information on the top-left corner of the front page. The MLA format research paper title page should look like this:
- Name of Teacher/Professor
- Name of Course
- Due Date for Assignment
Type your title below the date after double spacing and align it centered with no period at the end. You shouldn't make your title bold, italicized, or underlined. There is only one exception from the rule: use italics if the title of another source is included in yours. Make sure you follow the capitalization rules. Check if it's correct in MLA Handbook (67–68) .
The MLA title for an MLA format research paper looks like this:
Sarah E. Johnson
How Does Human Memory Work?
If you wonder how do you cite a page number in research paper in MLA format, consider setting the automatic page numbering in the top right-hand corner. That is done to keep track of the page order, and it also looks pleasing to the eye. Leave a margin of ½ inch from the top and flush with the right margin.
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How to Cite a Research Paper with In-Text Citations
In-text citations are often subordinate, meaning that information is always added to the end of the sentence in parentheses. But if you include that necessary information in the language of the sentence itself, you should not include the parenthetical citation.
For example, if the author's name is found within the in-text citation, there is no need to add it at the end; insert the page number, and you are all done referencing.
Having two sources from the same author may confuse the reader. When they check the source, they will find two different articles. To avoid this confusion, you must include a short title of the research citation so the readers know which citations to look for.
You should include all authors' last names when a source has two or three authors. Whereas, when you have four or more authors, then you have to write them all out following the last name of the first Author.
When citing a research paper in MLA style, include references within two sections:
- The quotes used within the essay
- The Works Cited page at the end
The citation information in the body of the paper itself is called the 'in-text citation.' The most obvious time to use it in the text is when you use a quote from a source directly or refer to it by title or author.
Generally, you must list the writer's last name and page number enclosed within parentheses straight after the quote. If the author's name is included as a feature of your sentence, you only have to add the page number in the bracket.
Example: "Two roads diverged in a wood, and I - I took the one less traveled by, and that has made all the difference" (Frost 1).
Kenneth Burke has described human beings as "symbol-using animals" (3).
As you can see, Burke's name was included in the sentence, so there is no need for repetition in the citation.
The Works Cited page
References: When providing references in a research paper in MLA style, you must inform the readers about the sources you used to cite this information. The reference page is known as the 'Works Cited.' This page is where the author gives credit to the source. Things that are placed within a citation include alphabetical order of the author's last name, the title of the article, and the publication date.
- Follow this format exactly: Author(s)-> 'Title of Article.' ->Title of Journal Volume.->Issue (Year): pages
- Electronic Sources. For electronic sources, utilize the inventor's name, page number, or area number for in-substance references. This is only if the information does not have page or section numbers by any method. By then, you would include the author's name in the section after you have referred to the recorded information.
If you need help from a custom essay service , address our professionals.
Research Paper MLA Format Example
The human memory remains an interesting research subject for psychologists. Typically, human beings live in the present. However, the past constitutes an integral component of life, and this makes the memory a fundamental element in daily operations. According to Zimmerman and Kelley (2010)...
Also, for a better understanding in essay writing formats, we recommend that you read about the APA essay format and the difference between APA and MLA .
FAQs on MLA Format Citation in Research Paper
We realize that mastering MLA citation may require more knowledge than the information given above can supply. Therefore, we've compiled some additional details below to provide you with a deeper understanding of how to cite a research paper MLA.
What is the Basic MLA Format in a Research Paper?
If you'd rather have a simple guideline on how to cite research paper, here are the simple steps for an MLA format paper.
- Use standard 8.5 x 11-inch paper.
- Use a 12-point font such as Times New Roman or Arial.
- Place a half-inch indent at the beginning of each paragraph, then double-space each phrase.
- Set all margins to be one inch.
- Use appropriate punctuation by ending each phrase with a period and capitalizing the first letter of each new sentence.
- Use paper binders and staples in the top-left corner of the page to bind hard-copy assignments in accordance with your professor's instructions.
Can I Give My Opinion in a MLA Research Paper?
While you may express your viewpoint in an MLA research paper, it is imperative to do so within the boundaries of academic writing and present evidence to back up your assertions.
The perspective you take can make a substantial contribution to meeting the final objective of an MLA format citation in research paper. Including your viewpoints will offer a well-researched and well-supported argument or analysis, as long as it is presented in a precise and professional fashion. Here are some examples of when to use 'I':
- Narrating the journey of how you found out something is noteworthy or, at the least, amusing.
- Detailing the technique you have employed in educating and encouraging student responses.
- You are in disagreement with another scholar and want to make clear that you are not claiming to possess the only right answer.
Lastly, if you still ask, 'Can I give my opinion in a MLA research paper?' Yes, you can as long as you want to be direct and straightforward in your writing.
How to Format a Title of a Book in a Research Paper MLA?
As set forth by the MLA style handbook, the title of a book should be italicized in research papers. Here is the correct manner of formatting the title of a book in MLA style:
- Set the title of the book in italic font.
- Make sure to capitalize the initial letter of the primary title and any subordinate titles, as well as any other words usually written with a capital letter in the heading.
- Maintain Title Case for the remaining words of the title, with the exception of articles, prepositions, and conjunctive phrases.
To demonstrate the correct way to cite a title of a book in a research paper MLA - 'To Kill a Mockingbird' by Harper Lee would be:
Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird.
Extra Academic Assistance
Crafting an MLA citation in a research paper is a time-consuming endeavor. All these minor and bothersome regulations can be disheartening for a student. We have invested a lot of effort in familiarizing ourselves with different formatting styles, and we have a thorough understanding of each one. It can often be simpler to shell out a nominal cost for a professionally made sample research paper in MLA style instead of having to do it yourself. Feel free to leave it to our essay writing company . Just send us your request, and we will solve your formatting problems swiftly and efficiently!
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’Tis the season for giving thanks, and this is your friendly reminder that the Thanksgiving table is not the only place where a show of gratitude may be appreciated, if not warranted. There are a number of ways writers can give thanks, including in the form of a dedication, an acknowledgment, a credit line, a figure caption, or an in-text citation. And you don’t even have to wait until November! You can give writerly thanks as often as you like, all year round.
A dedication typically stands alone—that is, on a page by itself—near the beginning of a work. Use it to thank your teacher, your students, your uncle, your cat—the choice is yours.
Acknowledgments also appear at the outset of a work and serve as a space for authors to acknowledge, in more detail than a dedication allows, any individuals (such as family members or colleagues) or subsidies (such as grants or fellowships) that contributed to the development or publication of a work.
A credit line can be used to acknowledge that a text or artwork under copyright has been used in a new publication with the express permission of the copyright holder. A credit line might read, for example, “Reprinted with kind permission of the author” or “Courtesy of the National Gallery.” For illustrations that appear in an unpublished student paper, giving thanks typically takes the form of a figure caption .
And last but certainly not least, the old standby: the in-text citation. After all, the words and ideas of others are something to be grateful for, and what better way to show your gratitude than to give credit where credit is due?
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How to Write a Research Paper in MLA Format
If you are a student of liberal arts or humanities courses, you are almost sure to be assigned to prepare your research paper in MLA format. This peculiar format is designed by the well-known MLA (Modern Language Association), and it has gained widespread acceptance in the US and other English-speaking countries for academic papers written by students of various educational establishments. Generally, MLA style research paper format covers not only student works, but also various kinds of scientific, academic and commercial publications in the field of humanities, including English/foreign languages or fields related to literature, as well as communication, media, and cultural studies.
In 2016, the "MLA Handbook" (8th edition) was presented, providing an all-purpose set of instructions, which authors can apply to sources of various types. These rules include formatting (margins, font, peculiar spacing and headers/footers) and styling (quotations, in-text citations, voice and so on). And now we are going to explore how to write a research paper in MLA format step by step.
The Guide on How to Write a Research Paper Using MLA Format
When writing a research paper in MLA format, you need to follow general rules designed with the aim to encourage quality research and clear academic writing based on uniform requirements.
According to these requirements, you need to present your work in a type-written form on standard-sized paper (8.5x11 inches). Throughout the entire work, you should use double spacing and 1-inch margins (apply it for all the sides). It is required to choose an easy-to-read and professional font (Times New Roman, Arial, Century Gothic or Garamond). The required font size almost always is 12-point. Italicizing is also allowable, but only if your paper monitor specified it.
Also, note that you shouldn't use excessive spaces after full points and various punctuation marks unless the professor provided you with other requirements. That applies to headers, too - you are to create page headers that will include your name and page numbers from the very first page unless otherwise required by your research paper tutor.
Besides, you should keep in mind that the guide recommends using active voice in your academic writing whenever it is possible.
Now you have got a general idea on how to write a research paper using MLA format and we can move further to formatting the very first page.
MLA Format Research Paper Title Page
Usually, you don't need to create a separate title page, if you are working with this format. The information about your work, its title and introduction are placed on one page. Your (student's) and your professor's names, the course you are studying in, and the date are listed in the left (upper) corner. Write these at double line spacing and then go two more lines down to type your research paper main title in the center of your document.
Write all major words of your title starting with a capital letter, but don't type all the words in capitals, as well as don't use italics, underlining or speech intensifications, unless your title contains mentioning of other pieces of work. This way, you should begin it with speech marks and a capital letter (for example, Mythology and its Functions in Homer's "Iliad") or use italics (The Poetry of Nature in Dante's Divine Comedy).
When starting an introduction first paragraph, use double line spacing in order to separate the title of your work from its text,
Also, your name needs to be specified in the header (right corner), followed by a page number separated by a space. However, your tutor may instruct you to omit this feature for the first page.
Moreover, in your school, you may often be required to create a cover page for your work. How to do a title page in MLA format for a research paper in this situation? You need to ask your tutor about the requirements since they can vary.
Introduction MLA Format Research Paper
There are no specific requirements to your introduction format, except that you need to separate the first sentence of paragraphs and make it a 1/2 inch from margins (this can be done in a simple way through using your Tab key). Also, throughout your text you should follow MLA referencing rules, including quoting, paraphrasing, introducing authors, in-text referencing and works-cited page formatting.
Nevertheless, you still should stick to the standard instructions for writing introduction part for the research paper. Briefly describe your topic, giving necessary background information, explaining the significance of the problems set, defining the primary purposes and tasks of your work and specifying the chronological framework and sources. At the end of your introduction, bring forth your thesis statement, which clearly states your point of view or claim you are going to explore.
MLA Format: Body of the Research Paper
Working on the content of your research paper body part, you are to provide the facts found or ideas generated during your research process, which meet your thesis statement put forth in the introduction. Let each of your points have a separate paragraph and don't fail to support them with evidence.
Research Paper MLA Format Conclusion
Many students don't quite understand how to write a conclusion in a research paper in MLA format. You have to follow general recommendations on writing conclusions in academic papers. You are expected to present a summary of your work, reflecting your conclusions and proposals on a particular issue. If you are faced with difficulties, you can address our MLA research paper writing help - our professional writers can assist you in dealing with preparing a research paper perfectly, as well as help you format certain parts of your work appropriately.