Business Environment project class 12 cbse
PROJECT WORK IN THE SUBJECT OF BUSINESS STUDIES ON THE TOPIC "BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT" AS THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF AISSCE, MARCH 2018 CONDUCTED BY CBSE. This project contains the information regarding the accountancy project which is to be made by the students of class 12th boards... This project is made by jigar vaishnav for the session 2017-18 with the latest guidelines as per CBSE... Hope this will help the upcoming students who want a help regarding the business studies project.... VIEW THIS PROJECT AT YOUTUBE:- https://www.youtube.com/edit?o=U&video_id=V7b6VQQrjsg
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Environment and Sustainable Development Class 12 Notes PDF
- Post author: Anuj Kumar
- Post published: 24 January 2022
- Post category: Commerce
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Macroeconomics Class 12
- Introduction to Macroeconomics
- National Income Accounting
- Methods of Calculating National Income
- Money and Banking
- Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply
- Short Run Equilibrium Output
- Foreign Exchange Rate
- Government Budget and the Economy
- Balance of Payments
Indian Economy Class 12
- Indian Economy on the Eve of Independence
- Indian Economy 1950 to 1990
- Economic Reforms Since 1991
- Liberalisation Privatisation and Globalisation
- Human Capital Formation in India
- Rural Development
- Employment and Unemployment
- Environment and Sustainable Development
- Comparative Development Experiences of India and Its Neighbours
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Environment and Sustainable Development Class 12 MCQ Questions PDF
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Getuplearn provides chapter-wise indian economy revision notes and short keynotes for the CBSE board exam. You can download environment and sustainable development class 12 notes pdf Keynotes is easy to understand and also free downloadable PDF format so students can practice it for their exams and get good marks in their board examinations.
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Human Capital Formation in India Class 12 Notes PDF
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Environment and Sustainable Development class 12 Notes Economics
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Class 12 Revision Notes Economics Environment and Sustainable Development
Environment is defined as the total planetary inheritance and the totality of all resources. It includes all the biotic and abiotic elements that influence each other. All living elements-the birds, animals and plants, forests, fisheries etc. are biotic elements.
Abiotic elements of the environment includes non-living elements like air, water, land, rocks and sunlight etc.
Functions of the Environment
(i) Environment supplies resource (both renewable and nonrenewable resources) for production. (ii) Environment assimilates waste, (iii) Environment sustains life. (iv) Environment enhances quality of life.
The environment is able to perform these functions without any interruption as long as demand on these functions are within its carrying capacity.
Carrying capacity implies two things:
(i) Resource extraction should remain below the rate of resource regeneration. (ii) Generation of wastes should remain within the absorption capacity of the environment.
If these two conditions are not fulfilled, then environmental crisis occurs.
Absorptive capacity of the environment means the ability of the environment to absorb degradation.
The various reasons for environmental crisis are as under: (i) Population explosion and advent of industrial revolution. (ii) The intensive and extensive extraction of both renewable and nonrenewable resources. (iii) The affluent consumption and production standards of developed countries.
Renewable resources are those which can be used without the possibility of the resource becoming depleted or exhausted. That is, a continuous supply of resource remains available for e.g. tress in forest and the fish in the oceans.
Non renewable resources are those which get exhausted with extraction and use. For example, fossil fuel.
Two basic problems related to environment are
(i) Problem of pollution. (ii) Problem of excessive exploitation of natural resources.
Pollution is contamination of useful things such as air, water, land etc. with undesirable or harmful materials like foul gases, smoke, poisonous chemicals, etc.
The major forms of pollution are as follow (i) Air pollution (ii) Water Pollution (iii) Noise Pollution (iv) Land Pollution
Global warming is a gradual increase in the average temperature of the earth’s lower atmosphere. Global warming is caused by man-made increase in carbon dioxide (Co 2 ) and other greenhouse gases through the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation.
Some of the long term results of global warming are as follow: (i) Melting of polar ice with a resulting rise in sea level and coastal flooding. (ii) Extinction of species as ecological niches disappear. (iii) more frequent tropical storms and (iv) An increased incidence of tropical diseases.
Ozone depletion refers to reduction in the amount of Ozone (a protective layer) in the stratosphere.
The problem of Ozone depletion is caused by high levels of CFC used as cooling substances in air conditioners and refrigerators or as aerosol propellants and bromofluro-carbons used in fire extinguishers.
As a result of depletion of the ozone layer, more ultra violet (UV) radiation comes to earth causing damage to living organism.
The threat to India’s environment poses a dichotomy-threat of poverty-induced environmental degradation and, at the same time, threat of pollution from affluence and rapidly growing industrial sector.
Air pollution, water contamination, soil erosion, deforestation and wildlife extinction is some of the most pressing environmental concerns of India.
The priority issues identified in India are: (i) Land degradation (ii) Biodiversity loss (iii) Air pollution with special reference to vehicular pollution in urban cities. (iv) Management of fresh water. (v) Solid waste management.
Land degradation refers to a decline in the overall quality of soil, water or vegetation condition, commonly caused by human activities.
Some of the factors responsible for land degradation is
(i) loss of vegetation occurring due to deforestation. (ii) Forest fires and over grazing. (iii) Improper crop rotation. (iv) Encroachment into forest lands. (v) Shifting cultivation. (vi) Indiscriminate use of agrochemical such as fertilizers and pesticides. (vii) Improper planning and management of irrigation systems. (viii) Extraction of ground water in excess of the recharge capacity. (ix) Poverty of the agriculture-dependent people. (x) Non-adoption of adequate soil conservation measures.
Chipko and Appiko movements are related to protect forests. In order to address two major environmental concerns in India, viz, water and air pollution, the government set up the central pollution control board (CPCB) in 1974. Board investigate, collect and disseminate information relating to water, air and pollution, lay down standards of sewage/trade effluent and emissions.
Functions of the Central Board at the National Level
- Advise the Central Government on any matter concerning prevention and control of water and air pollution and improvement of the quality of air.
- Plan and cause to be executed a nation-wide programme for the prevention, control or abatement of water and air pollution;
- Co-ordinate the activities of the State Board and resolve disputes among them;
- Provide technical assistance and guidance to the State Boards, carry out and sponsor investigation and research relating to problems of water and air pollution, and for their prevention, control or abatement;
- Plan and organise training of persons engaged in programme on the prevention, control or abatement of water and air pollution;
- Organise through mass media, a comprehensive mass awareness programme on the prevention, control or abatement of water and air pollution;
- Collect, compile and publish technical and statistical data relating to water and air pollution and the measures devised for their effective prevention, control or abatement;
- Prepare manuals, codes and guidelines relating to treatment and disposal of sewage and trade effluents as well as for stack gas cleaning devices, stacks and ducts;
- Disseminate information in respect of matters relating to water and air pollution and their prevention and control;
- Lay down, modify or annul, in consultation with the State Governments concerned, the standards for stream or well, and lay down standards for the quality of air; and
- Perform such other function as may be prescribed by the Government of India.
India’s rapid economic development has made us aware of two realities: (i) Economic development has lifted millions out from poverty. (ii) Economic development has been accompanied by accelerated depletion of natural resources and rapid deterioration in environment quality.
Sustainable development is that process of development which meets the needs of present generation without reducing the ability of future generation to meet their own needs.
Main features of sustainable development is as under: (i) Sustained rise in Real per Capita Income and Economic welfare. (ii) Rational use of natural resources. (iii) No reduction in the ability of the future generation to meet their own needs. (iv) Check on pollution.
To achieve sustainable development, the following needs to be done:
(i) Limiting the human population. (ii) Technological progress should be input efficient and not input consuming. (iii) Renewable resources should be extracted on a sustainable basis, that is, the rate of extraction should not exceed rate of regeneration. (iv) For non-renewable resources, rate of depletion should not exceed the rate of creation of renewable substitutes. (v) Inefficiencies arising from pollution should be corrected.
Strategies for Sustainable Development.
(i) Use of non-conventional sources of energy. (ii) Use of cleaner fuels: LPG, Gobargas in rural areas and CNG in Urban areas. (iii) Use of Solar energy and wind power. (iv) Shift to organic farming. (v) Recycle the wastes (vi) Public means of transport. (vii) Traditional knowledge and practices. (viii) Establishment of Mini-Hydel plants. (ix) Biopest Control
Revision Notes for Class 12 – Free PDF Download
CBSE quick revision note for class 12 Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology and other subject are very helpful to revise the whole syllabus during exam days. The revision notes covers all important formulas and concepts given in the chapter. Even if you wish to have an overview of a chapter, quick revision notes are here to do if for you. These notes will certainly save your time during stressful exam days.
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To download Environment and Sustainable Development class 11 Notes, sample paper for class 11 Chemistry, Physics, Biology, History, Political Science, Economics, Geography, Computer Science, Home Science, Accountancy, Business Studies and Home Science; do check myCBSEguide app or website. myCBSEguide provides sample papers with solution, test papers for chapter-wise practice, NCERT solutions, NCERT Exemplar solutions, quick revision notes for ready reference, CBSE guess papers and CBSE important question papers. Sample Paper all are made available through the best app for CBSE students and myCBSEguide website.
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Question Bank, Mock Tests, Exam Papers, NCERT Solutions, Sample Papers, Notes
- Inflation Problem and Policies Class 12 Notes Economics
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- Rural Development Class 12 Notes Economics
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- Indian Economy 1950-1990 Class 12 Notes Economics
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EVS Project (Class 12 ICSE): SYJC
December 26, 2021 by studymumbai Leave a Comment
EVS Project (ICSE Class 12) – SYJC (30 Marks)
Steps to Conduct the Project
Here are the steps for conducting the project work.
GET INSTANT HELP FROM EXPERTS!
Hire us as project guide/assistant . Contact us for more information
Introduction of the project – (2 marks-1 page- back to back) Background of the subject, Justification of choosing the topic
Importance of the project – (2 marks-1 side page) Why particular project is important
Objectives of the project – (2 marks-1 side page) what is that you will find out in the project (Should Start with “To”)
Methodology of the project –(4 marks-2 pages- back to back) Methods those will be used in data collection (siting the sources, survey, interviews etc.)
Observations – (4 marks-2 pages – back to back) Data/ information collection
Analysis – (4 marks-2 pages- back to back) on analysis of data- discuss ‘why’ of data
Results and Conclusion –(2 marks-1 page- back to back) what is the project outcome, what were the learnings from the project- did you fulfil objectives of project…
How to approach the Project
Selecting a topic
What topic should I research?
- Keep your eyes and ears open..
- Be inquisitive……
- Ask why?????
Think big but Start small.
Should reflect what you will do.. Should not be vague, too general.
Aim and Objectives
What is that you want to find out…Write down the objectives of the project. Whether you already have little information and you want to find out further. Read relevant material.
Once you have identified the problem you want to work on – discuss with experts, Try to read some material on the subject (google is a good place to start..)
Finalise your methodology
How are you going to collect your data?
This depends on what you are going to explore
Questionnaire, semi structured interviews, observations, sample collection, lab analytical techniques.
Spend time on this aspect.
It is the most important part of your work. Do a sample first to test.
Analysing your data
Use graphs (bar graphs, pie diagram)
This will help you to understand patterns in your data.
Interpreting the data
What do the patterns in the analysis mean?
EVS Project Topics (ICSE Class 12)
Climate action plan dedicated to mumbai keeping in tune with climate adaptation, mitigation and resilience.
Intergovernmental panel on climate change (ipcc) report – 2021 on global warming with a focus on mumbai and maharashtra.
Ramsar sites in india – conservation of wetlands.
Survey the local rainwater harvesting installations if any in your locality. List down how it has benefitted the area.
Vehicular pollution – biggest contributor to city’s air pollution.
Study the local or nearby dam and write down the environmental issues concerning the dam and the locality.
Ecosystem restoration – Conservation of Aarey which acts as drainage basin and restoration of mangroves for creating carbon sink.
Biofuels – Production of biofuels (b10-ethanol etc.) in India.
Visit a local industry and study the environmental impacts of it in the surrounding area. Carry out interviews of local people about their views on the industry.
Study population status of your village/town /city for past 20 years ( since census is conducted every ten years) available on the indian national website (http//:censusindia.gov.in). Make a graphical representation of the changes seen and discuss the changes.
Report the weather changes experienced by you and other people in your area in the previous year. Make a report on how it is afffecting your own local environment.
Use sound level app to study the sound pollution in the area. Measure the noise levels at the market place, school, hospital, traffic signal. Prepare a detail report on it. Prepare a poster suggesting measures to reduce noise levels and its harmful effects.
Visit (or one on one video call/ phone call) the nearest hospital / doctor in your locality. Prepare a questionnaire to talk to the doctor on the increase or decrease in the patients and the types of diseases reported. Write the report what are the causes of diseases and preventive measures which can be taken. Make a report of the same.
Conduct a project in your locality to find out solid waste disposal in your locality. Make a poster to reduce the waste management in the community.
Utilisation of renewable enrgy sources in india. 16. Causes, impact, mitigation measures of tropical storms and cyclones like nisarg (2020) and tauktae (2021) in mumbai city.
Wildlife conservation – protection of natural habitat.
Hi-tech project to clean Mithi river in Mumbai.
The ground water levels have gone down due to increase in use of water by people.
A number of animal species have become extinct due to excessive disturbance of the natural environment by humans.
A number of plant species have become extinct due to excessive disturbance of the natural environment by humans.
There are new patterns of disease and pest attack with changes in rainfall pattern.
Organic farming or agriculture.
Biogas: source of renewable energy
Waste water treatment
Importance of mangrove cover
Water pollution due to oil spillage.
Mobile towers: Effects on environment
Mobile towers: Effects on human health
Extinctions of animals or plants (take one specific animal or plant)
The Sparrow: Concerns and conservation
Vanishing vultures: too late or is there hope?
Animal testing : is it ethical?
3 R mantra: for solid waste management
Ecofriendly celebration of festivals (take one specific festival)
Red Munia birds (Sample EVS Project)
Title: To study and do the assessment of Red Munia birds ( Red Avadavat) in Shindewadi village.
Importance of study
Study will help to understand if there is illegal trade of birds in the area. Survey of these birds will help to identify the threats to this species. Study will throw light on the species distribution and identify the areas of occurrence. Awareness created among locals will help in protecting the species.
1. To study the distribution of red munias
2. To Study the abundance of the species (population of species)
3. To understand the threats of the species
Write about study area – location, district, population of village, major occupation of people.
Field observations- visit the areas where munias are seen on every Sunday from 8 am to 10 am from January to July ( example- will change according to the project).
Count the number of individuals seen.
Document the activity- feeding, preening, nesting .
Write down plants on which they feed. Survey of people in village about the munias – prepare a questionnaire.
Table showing month wise data of population of red munias in the study area.
They are seen in small flocks 15 to 20 of them together. Only one flock was observed which increased in january.
List of plants on which they are seen feeding.
They mostly feed on grass seeds and seen in jowar field.
They are seen chirping all the time and very agile.
Observations and analysis – monthwise population
Population of munias change monthwise in the study area as shown in fig.
In January or winter more individuals of birds are seen which keep on decreasing by summer.
Local people interviews say that they are not to be seen so commonly in recent years.
11% people informed that they have seen people catching the area.
Results and conclusion
The red munias are seen in Shindewadi and nearby villages. Their numbers increase in January as maybe some local migration of birds happen inthe area. The threat to species is there is catching of birds is seen by very few (11%)local people. Another threat is also the changing crop pattern in the area. Instead of jowar – bajra people grow sugarcane or anjir, pomgranades (dalimb).
The red munias are seen in the village fields near the flowing stream. There number is decreasing and there are no large flocks seen. The birds are caught and local people have no idea why they are caught. The people who catch them are not from village.
CISCE Class 12 Environmental Science (EVS) Syllabus
CISCE Class 12 Environmental Science (EVS) Syllabus Topics
- Modern Schools of Ecological Thought. Deep Ecology (Gary Snyder, Earth First) Vs. Shallow Ecology. Stewardship of Land (E.G. Wendell Berry).
- Social Ecology [Marxist Environmentalism and Socialist Ecology (Barry Commoner)]. Feminism. Green Politics (E.g. Germany and England). Sustainable Development
- Population and Conservation Ecology: Population and Conservation Ecology. Human Populations. Population Regulation. Human Population Control. Threats to the Ecosystem. Conservation
- Monitoring Pollution: Pollution Monitoring. Monitoring the Atmosphere: Techniques. International and National Air Quality Standards. Water Testing. Soil Testing
- Third World Development: Urban-rural Divide. A Critical Appraisal of Conventional Paradigm of Development from the Viewpoints of Sustainability, Environmental Impact and Equity. A Case Study of Gandhian Approach in Terms of Its Aims and Processes. Urban Environmental Planning and Management
- Sustainable Agriculture: Traditional Agriculture in India. Food Environmental and Natural Resource Economics: Definition: Resources; Scarcity and Growth; Natural Resource Accounting. Gnp Vs. Other Forms of Measuring Income. Economic Status and Welfare (Net Economic Welfare, Nature Capital, Ecological Capital, Etc.). Externalities: Cost Benefit Analysis (Social, Ecological). Natural Capital Regeneration
- International Relations and the Environment: Trans-national Characteristics of Environmental Issues Using Case Study of Amazonia, Trade in Wild Life and Ozone Depletion. Impact of International Politics, National Sovereignty and Interest. International Trade. International Aid
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Commerce Aspirant » Economics Class 12 » Environment and Sustainable Development Class 12 Notes
Environment and Sustainable Development Class 12 Notes
Environment and sustainable development class 12 notes aid students with some basic as well as specific knowledge on what is environment and the state of India’s environment. Class 12 Environment and Sustainable Development Notes engage students with attentive reading and eventually with better marks.
These “environment and sustainable development notes for class 12” are a complete help book for last-minute revision and provide necessary data.
Functions of environment
Carrying capacity of the environment.
- Reasons for the environmental crisis
- Measures to control the environmental crisis.
Government measures for environmental protection
Threats to india’s environment, threat to india’s environment poses a dichotomy.
- Challenges to India’s environment
- Features of sustainable development
- Difference between economic and sustainable development.
Necessary conditions for sustainable development
Strategies for sustainable development, environment and sustainable development class 12 – introduction.
Environment and sustainable development class 12 notes start with a discussion on the primitive state of the Indian environment.
Between the primitive and modern age, man has covered a long distance. Man’s march from a primitive age to the modern age is often viewed as a process of growth and development. Raped growth and industrialization have led to the excessive exploitation of natural resources which are scarce and also have damaged the environment and ecology.
Thus, there are two following serious effects
- Depletion of exhaustible natural resources leads to a reduction of availability of resources for the future generation.
- Environmental degradation and ecological imbalance.
Environment – Definition, Functions and Carrying capacity of Environment
Definition of environment.
Environment and sustainable development class 12 notes define environment as follows;
The total inheritance of the planet and the totality of all resources surround us and affect our existence and quality of life.
- It Includes biotic/living elements such as animals, birds, plants, forests, etc., and abiotic/non-living elements such as air, water, earth, climate, mountains, minerals, and other resources that nature has given us as gifts.
- Therefore, the environment refers to all conditions, resources, or environmental elements that affect human life and existence.
- It offers resources for production: Production is the process of conversion of natural resources into useful things. The environment provides natural resources which are used as inputs or raw materials for production. Resources include renewable and non-renewable resources.
- It assimilates (absorbs) wastage; Production and consumption activities generate wastage mostly in the form of garbage. Environment absorbs all this wastage.
- It sustains life; the Environment includes sun, soil, air, water, etc. which are essential ingredients (basic elements) for the existence of human life. So, the environment sustains life by providing these basic elements.
- Enhances quality of life ; Environment includes land, water, oceans, seas, rainfall, mountains, desserts, etc. These all elements make our surroundings beautiful and refreshing. People enjoy these surroundings which help in improving their quality of life.
The carrying capacity of the environment refers to the situation when ;
- The exploitation of resources does not exceed the regeneration of resources so that resources are not depleted
- The generation of wastage does not exceed the absorption capacity of the environment so that the environment is not polluted.
- Resource extraction should remain below/ less than the rate of generation of resources.
- Generation of wastage should remain within the absorption/ assimilation capacity of the environment.
If these above two conditions are not fulfilled, then the environment fails to perform its vital function of sustaining life and results in an economic crisis.
Thus, an environmental crisis occurs when exploitation of resources and generation of wastage exceed the carrying capacity of the environment.
Reasons for environment crisis
According to Environment and sustainable development class 12 notes, the following are the reasons for the environmental crisis.
1. High population growth
The high rate/rapid rate of population growth (known as population explosion) is one of the major causes of environmental degradation/ crisis. Increasing population has caused substantial conversion of forest land into land for industrial and residential use and it has also put a huge burden on natural resources which are limited or exhaustible.
Besides it, increasing population is also generating more wastes into the environment than the absorbing capacity
Widespread poverty is also another cause behind environmental degradation/ crisis. About 30% of total
The Indian population is below the poverty line. They exclusively depend on forests for living and for fulfilling energy requirements or fuel. These people resort to an indiscriminate tree falling.
On the one hand, this results in deforestation and leads to loss of natural assets and on the other hand, causes pollution.
3. Rapid industrialization
It has also contributed to environmental degradation or crisis. Though it is necessary for economic development, unplanned and uncontrolled growth of industries led to air, water, and noise pollution and indiscriminate felling of trees to set up industries cause deforestation.
It is the outcome of migration of rural population to urban areas in search of jobs and also an important/major cause of environment crisis/ degradation.
- It put more pressure/ burden on land and environmental resources to meet the increasing demand of settlement and other civic amenities in cities.
- The overcrowding in cities also leads to an increase in slums areas and undesirable land-use changes.
- It causes the generation of huge wastes and a decline in water and air quality.
Thus, urbanization results in environmental degradation/crisis.
5. The massive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides
Chemical fertilizers and pesticides are used to increase agricultural productivity and production but agricultural development based on these chemical fertilizers and pesticides are not eco-friendly and adversely affects the environment by causing soil pollution (loss of fertility) and water pollution.
6. Increase in several vehicles
India’s transport system is based on the intensive use of petroleum products. The number of motor vehicles has increased to 14.18 in crores in 2011 from 6.5 lacs in 1951. The rapid increase in the number of motor vehicles has contributed significantly to about 60% of total air pollution and has caused mice pollution leading to environmental degradation.
7. Disregard the civic norms
The general people of India tend to disregard the civic norms. Therefore, roads are littered and horns and loudspeakers are indiscriminately used which results in an environmental crisis.
Measures to control environmental degradation
Population control: High rate/rapid rate of population growth (known as population explosion) are one of the major causes of environmental degradation/ crisis. There is a serious need to control the growth rate of the population to a level within the carrying capacity of the environment.
It will help in maintaining;
- The balance between extraction of resources and their generation.
- Balance of generation of wastes and absorption capacity of the environment.
- Ecological balance by reducing environmental degradation.
Eradication of poverty: -Widespread poverty is also another cause behind environmental degradation/ crisis. The survival needs of the poor force them to continue to degrade an already degraded environment.
They exclusively depend on forests for living and for fulfilling energy requirements or fuel. Removal of poverty is very essential to protect our environment.
Creation of awareness and encouraging public participation; Environmental degradation is a challenge to India’s environment which can be solved only by the active participation of people.
There is an urgent need to create awareness among people about the dangers of population or environmental degradation and how each can contribute his bit to check environmental degradation.
It will certainly reduce further degradation of the environment.
Control on vehicular pollution; Rapid increase in the number of motor vehicles has contributed significantly to about 60% of total air pollution and about 80% in metro cities. Vehicular pollution may be controlled by adopting the following strategies:
- Expansion of public transport
- Tightening of emission norms.
- Promotion and use of alternative fuel like CNG/LPG/battery-operated vehicles.
- Traffic planning and management etc.
Control over industrial pollution:-unplanned and uncontrolled growth of industries led to air, water, and noise pollution. There is a serious need to control pollution caused by industrial development without affecting economic
growth. It may be controlled by the followings strategies;
- Promotion of cleaner technologies.
- Fixation of emission norms.
- Introducing economic incentives etc.
Control over agricultural pollution:- agricultural development based on chemical fertilizers and pesticides
adversely affects the environment by causing soil pollution (loss of fertility) and water pollution. Agricultural pollution can be controlled by motivating farmers to avoid chemical-based fertilizers and pesticides and to use eco-friendly fertilizers and pesticides.
Management of solid wastes:-Strategies needs to be developed to ensure scientific management of hazardous wastes. It includes all the aspects of waste management, starting from the generation of wastes to its handling, segregation, transportation, treatment, and disposal.
Besides it, strategies need to be developed to minimize wastes generation and proper arrangements should be made to dump wastes.
Developing urban areas: – migration of rural population to urban areas in search of jobs puts more pressure/ burden on land and environment resources to meet the increasing demand of settlement and other civic amenities in cities. This should be handled by the following:
- By converting unutilized land and other resources of urban areas to plan townships.
- By developing rural areas or creating job opportunities to control migration from rural to urban areas.
- By controlling the increase in slums areas and adopting/ implementing alternative human settlements.
The negative opportunity cost of the environment.
- The inverse in health Expenditure
- The financial commitment of the government increases to international issues.
- Government’s Expenditure on Health increases.
Environment Protection Act, 1986
According to this act, the environment includes water, air, and land, and the interrelationship, which exists among and between water, air, land, and human beings and other creatures, plants, micro-organisms, and property.
The main objective of this act is to provide protection and improvement of the environment and for matters connected therewith. It provides power to make rules to regulate environmental pollution and notify standard and maximum limits of pollutants of air, water, and soil.
Pollution control board
To address water and air pollution in India, the government set up the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) in 1974. This was followed by states establishing their state-level board to address all the environmental problems. It has identified 17 categories of industries that pollute the environment.
Functions of pollution board
- They investigate, collect and disseminate information relating to water, air, and land pollution.
- They lie down/ determine standards for sewage/ trade effluent and emissions.
- These boards provide technical assistance to the government in promoting cleanliness of streams and wells by prevention, control, and abatement of water and air pollution
- These boards also carry out investigations and research relating to problems of water and air pollution.
- They also organize comprehensive awareness programs to create awareness among people about the possible dangers of environmental degradation.
- They monitor the quality of water of 125 rivers including tributaries.
- These boards also periodically inspect every industry under their jurisdiction to assess the adequacy of treatment
The forests (conservation) act 1980
The act has strict provisions to check the diversion of forest land for any other purpose. Due to the implementation of this act, the rate of diversion of forest land has declined to 6,500 hectares per annum after 1980 from 1,50,000 hectares per annum between 1950-80.
National Afforestation and eco-development board (NAEB)
To promote afforestation, tree plantation, ecological restoration, and economic development activities in The national afforestation and eco-development board (NAEB) was set up in August 1992.
Environmental education and awareness
To bring environmental awareness among the people, a scheme named National Environmental Awareness Program was launched in 1986. A center for environmental education was established in Ahmedabad to frame educational materials and curriculum.
State of India’s environment
Environment and sustainable development class 12 notes talk about the state of India’s environment as follows.
India has abundant natural resources in terms of the rich quality of soil, hundreds of rivers and tributaries, lush green forests, plenty of mineral deposits, vast stretches of the Indian Ocean, ranges of mountains, etc.
- The black soil of the Deccan Plateau is particularly suitable for cotton cultivation, leading to a concentration of the textile industry in the region.
- The Indo-Gangetic Plain (from the Arabian Sea to the Bay of Bengal) is one of the most fertile, intensively cultivated, and densely populated areas in the world.
- India’s forests provide green cover for most of its population and natural cover for its wildlife.
- There are large deposits of iron ore, coal, and natural gas in the country.
- India alone accounts for nearly 20% of the world’s iron reserves.
- Bauxite, copper, chromite, diamond, gold, lead, lignite, manganese, zinc, uranium, etc. are also available in different parts of the country.
- India is the habitat of about 17% of the total world population and 20% of the total livestock population but occupies only 2% of the total geographical area.
- The rising population and the economic growth and industrialization have placed huge pressure on its finite natural resources. Many resources are exhausted and wastes generated are beyond the absorptive capacity of the environment.
- The threat of poverty-induced environmental degradation: – About 30% of the total population of India is below the poverty line (poor). Poverty is causing environmental degradation through cutting down trees, overgrazing of animals, pollution of water resources, encroachment of forest land, etc.
- The threat of pollution from rapidly growing industrial sectors:-India is the 10th largest industrial country in the world. The rapid expansion of the industrial sector causes air, water, and noise pollution leading to environmental degradation.
Air pollution, water contamination, soil erosion, deforestation, and natural resources, and wildlife extinction are some of the most pressing environmental concerns in India.
Challenges to India’s environment
1. Land degradation
Land degradation refers to a loss/ decline in the fertility/productivity of land and the quality of the soil.
In India, land suffers from varying degrees and types of degradation because of unstable use and inappropriate management practices. This leads to loss of valuable nutrients and loss of fertility,
Causes of land degradation
It occurs mainly because of soil erosion (due to water and wind) and waterlogging alkalinity and salinity).
Some of the other factors are:
- Loss of vegetation due to deforestation.
- Overgrazing and forest fire.
- Encroachment of forest land.
- Improper crop rotation.
- Indiscriminate use of agrochemicals, such as fertilizers and pesticides.
- Improper planning and management of the irrigation system.
- Shifting cultivation.
- The poverty of the agriculture-dependent people.
- Excessive extraction of groundwater.
- Inadequate soil conservation measures.
About 174 million hectares (50% of total land area) are suffering from the problem of land degradation. Out of 174 million hectares, 144 million hectares suffer from soil erosion through water and wind.
Deforestation refers to a continuous and substantial decrease in the forest area.
Deforestation refers to the continuous removal or destruction of forest cover (area).
Deforestation in India has been continuing on a large scale since independence but after independence, it is rising at a rapid rate that has disturbed the ecological balance of the country.
At present, forest cover area is only 23.04% of the total land area which is much less than recommended forest cover area 33% (1,000 lakh hectares) of total land area.
The per capita forest land area in the country is only 0.08 hectares against the requirement of 0.47 hectares to meet basic needs.
The consequences of deforestation are:
- Chances of more floods.
- Soil erosion.
- biodiversity loss and air pollution.
- Negative effect on wildlife etc.
Causes of degradation
- To meet growing needs raw material for industrialization.
- Clearing forest for Construction of buildings (human settlement), roads, development of a township, etc. growing urbanization.
- Construction of dams for multipurpose river projects.
3. Soil erosion
Deforestation is one of the major reasons for soil erosion and takes place when the surface soil is washed away through excessive rains or floods and wind.
Soil erosion refers to loss of the upper layer of soil which contains major nutrients for the growth of plants leading to loss of fertility of the land.
4. Biodiversity loss
Biodiversity is defined as the variability among living organisms from all sources and ecology of our ecosystem of which they are a part; conservation and sustainable use biodiversity crisis are fundamental to ecologically sustainable development.
India has approximately 17% of the world population and 20% of the livestock population on a mere 2.5% of the world’s geographical area.
The high density of population, livestock, and competing uses of land for agriculture, forestry, pasture, human settlements, and industries exert enormous pressure on the country’s finite land resources, which puts a strain on the ecosystem resulting in the extinction of plants and animal species. This is known as biodiversity loss.
After independence, economic reforms caused rapid industrialization, growing townships, and urbanization. This has led to the destruction of habitats and biodiversity sites.
These Environment and sustainable development notes discuss sustainable development as follows.
- Environment and economy are interdependent but development that ignores its repercussions on the environment will destroy the environment that sustains life.
- Present development strategies have serious followings implications;
- Environment degradation and environmental pollution.
- Rapid depletion of natural resources and reduction of availability of resources for future generations implies a reduction in the production capacity of future generations.
- There is an emerging challenge to the quality of life of the present and future generations.
- Thus, this is very difficult to sustain the process of growth and development due to depletion environment degradation of resources and
- So, there is a need for a process of growth and development that can be sustained over a long period without causing any damage to the environment and fall in the quality of life of future generations.
The concept of sustainable development was first propounded by the world commission on Environment and development (set up by the united nation) in its report submitted in 1987,
According to the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, “Sustainable development refers to development that sustains over a long period and meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of the future generation to meet their own needs.”
According to Edward Barbier Sustainable development is a development that is directly concerned with increasing the material standards of living of the poor. It can be measured in terms of increased real income. Increased in educational services, increased in health care services, increased in sanitation and water supply, etc. or fall in absolute poverty, environmental degradation, cultural disruption, and social instability
Features of Sustainable Development
- It aims at the potential average quality of life for both present and future generations.
- It emphasizes protecting the future generation.
- It emphasizes sustainable, equitable, and rational use of resources to meet the needs of present and future generations.
- It discards those activities which induce environmental pollution or stresses upon the protection of the environment.
Difference Between Economic and Sustainable development
According to Herman Daly, the following conditions are necessary for sustainable development:
- Limiting the population to a level within the carrying capacity of the environment.
- Technological progression should be input efficient and not input consuming. In other words, more should be produced with a given amount of inputs. It will then reduce the exploitation of resources.
- Renewable resources should be extracted on a sustainable basis. In other words, the rate of extraction of renewable resources should not exceed the rate of regeneration.
- Non-renewable resources are limited and are depleting rapidly. The rate of depletion of non-renewable resources should not exceed the rate of creation of renewable resources.
- Pollution should be controlled/ limited to the absorption capacity of the environment and inefficiency arising from pollution should be corrected.
Use of non-conventional sources of energy
India is largely dependent on thermal and hydropower plants to meet its power requirements.
Thermal power plants emit large quantities of carbon dioxide which is a greenhouse gas and also produces fly ash which causes water, land, and the environment.
Hydropower plants inundate forests and interfere with the natural flow of water.
Non-conventional sources like wind power and solar rays are cleaner and greener technologies for producing power that can effectively replace thermal and hydropower without any adverse impact on the environment.
Establishing/ setting up mini-hydel plants
In mountain regions, streams can be found almost everywhere. Most of such streams are perpetual or perennial or flow all the year round Mini hydel plants are set up to use the energy of such streams to move small turbines for producing electricity/ power.
Such power plants are eco-friendly as they do not change land-use patterns or do not interfere natural flow of water and generate enough electrical power to meet local demand.
Besides it, They do not need large-scale transmission towers and cables and avoid transmission loss.
Use of cleaner fuel in both rural and urban areas
In rural areas, households generally use wood, cow dung, and other biomass as fuel. These practices/consumption of fuel have several adverse impacts like deforestation, reduction in green cover, wastage of cattle dung and air pollution, etc.
To overcome this problem, LPG and gobar gas are being promoted. Subsidized LPG is being provided and gobar gas plants are being encouraged through easy loans and subsidies. These are eco-friendly and cleaner fuels and help in reducing pollution to a large extent.
In urban areas, the Indian transport system is based on petroleum products which emit huge carbon dioxide and pollute the environment. The use of compressed natural gas (CNG) in place of petrol and diesel as environmentally friendly and cleaner fuel has substantially reduced the level of air pollution.
Use of bio-compost
After the advent of the green revolution, Indian farmers have switched over to the use of chemical fertilizers and neglected the use of compost to enhance agriculture productivity and production.
An increase in the use of chemical fertilizers or excessive use of chemical fertilizers has not only adversely affected the fertility/ productivity of land but also contaminated the water bodies including groundwater.
In recent years, due to the increase in demand for organic food farmers have become aware of to use of compost and again have started using compost made from organic wastes which maintain and enhance the fertility of the soil and does not contaminate food.
In certain parts of the country, cattle are maintained only because they produce dung which is an important fertilizer and soil conditioner.
Use of bio pest control
The advent of the green revolution has increased the use of chemical pesticides for higher production which not only contaminates the food products but also pollutes soil and water bodies including groundwater.
To meet the challenge:
- Use of pesticides based on plant product:-Neem-based pesticides are environment friendly and free from side
- Creation of awareness among people about the use of various animals and birds (like snakes, lizards, owls, peacocks, etc.) which help in controlling pests.
- Mix cropping and growing different crops in consecutive years on the same land.
Traditional knowledge and practices
Traditionally/ in past, Indian people have been close to the environment or used to be close to their environment. All practices/ activities relating to the agriculture system, healthcare system, housing, transport, etc. were/ used to be environment friendly. With modernization, we have drifted/ gone far away from the traditional system.
It has caused large-scale damage to the environment and our rural heritage. For example, India is well known for its traditional AYUSH treatment with about 15,000 species of plants, which have medicinal properties and are very effective for treating chronic health problems.
These old systems are environment friendly, relatively free from side effects, and do not involve large-scale industrial and chemical processing. With the advent of the western system of treatment, we have ignored our traditional system of medicine which has resulted in environmental degradation and pollution.
In recent years/ time, people have started demanding organic and herbal products like hair oil, toothpaste, body lotion, face cream, etc. These products are environment friendly, relatively free from side effects, and do not involve large-scale industrial and chemical processing.
Awareness among people
Environmental degradation is a challenge to India’s environment which can be solved only by the active participation of people.
At the micro-level/ family level, people do their best to preserve assets for the future generation but at the macro-level/ national level, they do not think about the conservation of natural wealth/resources for future generations.
There is an urgent need to create awareness among people about the dangers of population or environmental degradation and rational use of natural resources and how each can contribute his bit to check environmental degradation.
It will certainly reduce further degradation of the environment and will lead to sustainable development.
Environment and sustainable development class 12 notes thoroughly examine the definition of environment, carrying capacity of the environment, state of India’s environment, and sustainable development. These notes also provide students with reasons for the environmental crises and the solutions to overcome them. Students can also view these solutions as steps to be taken in the future and can work on protecting India’s environment.
CBSE Class 12 Economics Notes Term II Syllabus
Part A: Introductory Macroeconomics
- Circular Flow of Income Class 12 Notes
- Basic Concepts of Macroeconomics Class 12 Notes
- National Income and Related Aggregates Class 12 Notes – 10 Mark
- National Income and Related Aggregates Class 12 Numericals
- Aggregate Demand and Its Related Concepts Class 12 Notes
- Excess Demand and Deficit Demand Class 12 Notes
- National Income Determination and Investment Multiplier Class 12 Notes
Part B: Indian Economic Development
Current challenges facing Indian Economy – 12 Marks
- Employment Class 12 Notes
- Infrastructure Class 12 Notes
- Sustainable Economic Development Class 12 Notes
Development Experience of India – A Comparison with Neighbours – 6 Marks
- Comparative Development Experience of India and its Neighbours Class 12 Notes
- Economics Class 12 Notes
- Business Studies Class 12 Notes
- Accountancy Class 12 Notes
- Economics Class 12 MCQs
- Business Studies Class 12 MCQs
- Accountancy Class 12 MCQs
Sandeep garg Class 12 Solutions
Unit Number 319, Vipul Trade Centre, Sohna Road, Gurgaon, Sector 49, Gurugram, Haryana-122028, India
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Class 11 Notes
- Economics Class 11 Notes
- Accountancy Class 11 Notes
Class 11 MCQs
- Economics Class 11 MCQs
- Business Studies Class 11 MCQs
Class 12 Notes
Class 12 MCQs
Environment Education EVS
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Business Environment Project Class 12, Element, Topic
Business Environment Project, Definition and Its Factors is given here. In this article, you will get to know the factors affecting the business environment.
Table of Contents
The business environment is the collection of factors like employees, clients, supply and demand, management, clients, suppliers, investors, and a lot more. Business Environment affects the working of a company.
The business environment helps to identify the goals, planning, execution, and internal working of a company. The business environment is an integral part of any organization.
What is Business Environment?
Various forms of organization are available in a business environment. They are Sole Proprietorship, Partnership, Co-Operative Societies, Statutory Bodies, and Corporations.
Each form has a different company base, brand value, including the other properties. Sole Proprietorship companies are those where the company is owned by a sole person/family.
In partnership firms, two or more partners equally share the responsibilities of the company. They also have equal shares in the profit earned. Corporations are the ones where a huge number of employees work and have branches all over the region.
Business Environment- Definition
The phrase “ business environment ” refers to the whole of all individuals, groups, and other entities that operate independently of the industry but have the potential to influence its output. “Like the universe, withhold from it the subset that represents the system and the rest is environment,” wrote an unknown author. Therefore, an enterprise’s environment includes the financial, cultural, governmental, technological, and other elements that operate outside of it. The environment of an enterprise is made up of the specific clients or competing businesses, as well as the management, clientele, rivals, media, legal systems, and other organizations operating outside.
Business Environment Project Features
- Complexity: The business world is complex, making it simple to comprehend certain aspects independently but challenging to comprehend all at once.
- Relativity: The impact of the business climate varies from nation to nation, area to region, and company to company. For instance, juice producers would appreciate a movement in consumer preference from soft drinks to juices, whereas soft drink producers would see it as a threat.
- The totality of external forces: A business firm’s environment is made up of all the forces and causes that are external to it.
- Specific and general forces: Both specific and general forces are present in the business environment. Investors, rivals, consumers, and other specific forces have an impact on a business firm directly. In contrast, general forces, including social, political, economic, legal, and technological conditions, have an impact on a business firm indirectly.
- Inter-relatedness: All dynamics and elements that affect a business environment are interconnected. For instance, growing interest in health care has increased demand for roasted snacks and organic food.
- Dynamic: The nature of the business environment is always changing due to advancements in technology, shifts in consumer preferences, and other factors.
Business Environment Project Dimensions
It alludes to the factors that influence business operations economically. Business is a recognized example of an economic organization. Its expansion and existence are therefore reliant on economic reasons. Numerous factors, including inflation, interest rates, price levels, the amount of money on the market, and others, are part of the economic environment. These elements can either present a business with an opportunity or a threat. As a result, management constantly works to seize chances and turn dangers into advantages.
A business’s social environment consists of long-standing traditions, cultures, and conventions. Any change in the social environment will have an impact on the availability of labor, capital, and consumer demand for a given good.
The broad aspects of science and technology in which a business enterprise operates are referred to as the technological environment of a business. It contains forces related to innovation and technological advancement, which creates a newer foundation for manufacturing goods and services, as well as efficient company management processes and practices.
The broad characteristics of the political system in which a business enterprise operates are referred to as the political environment. These characteristics include political conditions like general peace and stability in the nation as well as particular attitudes that the elected government representatives have towards the business enterprise. These factors have a big impact on how the firm operates on a daily basis. Businessmen have more faith in political parties because they operate within the constraints of the political environment when there is political stability.
It refers to the fundamental elements of the legislative framework under which a corporate firm operates, including the many laws the government introduces and passes in the parliament or state legislature. Additionally, administrative directives from courts and government agencies, as well as decisions based on committee recommendations, are involved.
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Business Environment Project Class 12 with Topic
Creating a project on the business environment for a class 12 course typically involves researching and presenting information about the various factors and forces that impact businesses. Here’s a general outline of what your project could include:
- “Analyzing the Business Environment: Implications and Challenges”
- Briefly introduce the concept of the business environment and its importance.
- Explain the objectives of your project.
Chapter 1: Understanding the Business Environment
- Define the business environment and its components.
- Explain the significance of studying the business environment for companies.
- Discuss the dynamic nature of the business environment.
Chapter 2: Internal Environment
- Explain the internal factors that influence a business, such as organizational structure, culture, and resources.
- Provide examples and case studies illustrating how these internal factors impact businesses.
Chapter 3: External Environment
- Discuss the various components of the external environment, including the macro environment and micro environment.
- Analyze the impact of factors like political, economic, social, technological, environmental, and legal forces on businesses.
Chapter 4: SWOT Analysis
- Explain the concept of SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats).
- Conduct a SWOT analysis for a chosen business to demonstrate the practical application of this tool.
Chapter 5: Competitive Environment
- Explore the competitive forces that affect businesses, including Porter’s Five Forces model.
- Analyze how these competitive forces can shape a business’s strategy.
Chapter 6: Global Business Environment
- Discuss globalization and how it affects businesses.
- Highlight the opportunities and challenges that arise from participating in the global economy.
Chapter 7: Regulatory Environment
- Explain the importance of government regulations in the business environment.
- Discuss how regulatory changes can impact businesses and provide examples.
Chapter 8: Social Responsibility and Business Ethics
- Discuss the role of businesses in society and the concept of corporate social responsibility.
- Explore the importance of ethical behavior in the business environment.
Chapter 9: Business Environment and Strategy
- Explain how an understanding of the business environment is essential for strategic planning.
- Provide examples of how businesses adapt their strategies based on environmental factors.
Chapter 10: Case Studies
- Present real-world case studies that illustrate the impact of the business environment on different companies.
- Analyze the strategies these companies used to navigate the challenges and opportunities.
- Summarize the key points of your project.
- Emphasize the importance of businesses being adaptive and responsive to their environment.
- Provide recommendations for businesses on how to better navigate their respective business environments.
- Cite all the sources you’ve used for your project.
- Include any additional data, charts, or graphs that support your project.
- Prepare a PowerPoint presentation to accompany your project, summarizing the key points for your class presentation.
Elements of Business Environment Class 12 Project
A Class 12 project on the elements of the business environment typically involves an analysis of various factors that influence and affect businesses. Here are some key elements to include in your project:
- Overview of the national and global economic conditions.
- Factors like inflation, GDP growth, interest rates, and exchange rates.
- Impact of economic policies on businesses.
- Demographic trends and their influence on consumer behavior.
- Social values, norms, and cultural factors affecting business decisions.
- Social responsibility and ethics in business.
- Government policies, regulations, and their impact on businesses.
- Analysis of legal frameworks, contracts, and intellectual property rights.
- Political stability and its effect on business operations.
- Advancements in technology and their impact on business innovation.
- Adoption of digital technologies, automation, and e-commerce.
- Cybersecurity and data protection in the digital age.
- Analysis of competitors in the industry.
- Porter’s Five Forces analysis (bargaining power of suppliers, buyers, threat of new entrants, rivalry, and substitutes).
- Strategies for sustainable competitive advantage.
- Environmental regulations and sustainability practices.
- Impact of climate change on businesses and their response.
- Corporate social responsibility (CSR) and green initiatives.
- International trade and globalization.
- Export-import policies and barriers to global expansion.
- Multinational corporations and global supply chains.
- Population trends and their impact on market demand.
- Age groups and generational differences affecting consumer preferences.
- Workforce demographics and labor market dynamics.
- Market segmentation and target customer analysis.
- Market trends, demand-supply dynamics, and market research.
- Marketing strategies and branding in a competitive market.
- Economic Indicators:
- Key economic indicators such as GDP, inflation rate, unemployment rate, and consumer confidence index.
- How these indicators affect business decision-making.
- Government Policies and Regulations:
- Analysis of specific government policies and regulations relevant to your chosen business or industry.
- How businesses comply with or adapt to these policies.
- Business Ethics and Social Responsibility:
- Discuss the importance of ethical business practices.
- How businesses address social and environmental responsibilities.
In your project, you can choose to focus on one or more of these elements, depending on your interests and the scope of your project. Ensure that you provide relevant examples, case studies, and data to support your analysis. Also, consider the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the business environment, as it has had a significant influence on businesses worldwide.
Business Environment and Types
There are multiple factors by which we can decide the type of business organization. The factors include the brand value, size of the organization, quality of the work done by the company, etc. A business can be classified according to small-sized, medium-sized, and large organizations.
Relativity in the Business Environment
An ideal business environment is the one through which the company flourishes and the employee’s productivity is maximized. It can be achieved by taking proper measures that can help to establish the communication between the employees and the management of a company.
Regular checks can also be done to ensure whether the environment is safe and sound for the employees or not. The client’s feedback also can be taken to improve the business environment.
There should also be regular interactions between the people of higher positions in the company and the regular employees. This can help to spread the motive of the company. This will help the employees to have a specific target along with a valid reason to work in the organization.
Business Environment is required for a company for the following reasons.
- Helps to plan the investment accordingly.
- Helps to strategize plans and opportunities.
- Helps to identify estimated loss that might occur if corrective measures are not taken in time.
- Helps to manage resources.
- Helps to measure the productivity of an employee in a company.
- Helps to establish intercommunications between the different teams of a company.
These are the reasons why a business environment is helpful.
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Business Environment Features
Usually, management people are responsible to ensure the business environment in an organization. Also, the regular employees, clients, and the ones related to the company regularly are responsible for the proper functioning of a business environment.
(A) The totality of External Forces in Business Environment
- The business environment includes everything which is outside the organization.
- If we add all these forces and systems, they will form a business environment for the organization.
Example: When Coca-Cola & Pepsi got permission from Govt. of India to set up their business in India, it was an opportunity for them and a threat for local manufacturers like gold spot, camp-cola, etc to improve their business.
(B) Specific and General Forces in Business Environment
- Specific forces are those forces that directly affect the operational activities of the business enterprise like manpower,raw material, etc.
- Example: Suppliers, Customers, Investors, Competitors, Financers, etc.
- General forces are those forces that indirectly affect the functioning of business enterprises.
Example: Economic, Social, Political, Legal, and Technological conditions of business.
(C) Inter-relatedness of systems in Business Environment
- Different forces of the business environment are interrelated to each other.
- In a Business Environment System, one component of the business environment affects the functioning of various other components.
Example: The increased life expectancy of people and awareness of health consciousness has increased the demand for many health products like diet coke, olive oil, organic products and so many health products.
(D) Dynamic Nature of Business Environment
The business environment is dynamic in nature and it keeps on changing in terms of many components :
(a) Technological improvement in Business Environment,
(b) Shifts in consumer preferences in the market,
(c) The entry of new competition of your feild in the market.
Example: Many established companies in FMCG (Fast Moving Consumer goods) sector are focusing on producing goods with natural ingredients with the entry of ‘Patanjali Products’ in the market.
(E) Uncertainty in Business Environment
- The rapid changes in the business environment cannot be predicted accurately because of future uncertainties in the market.
- It is very difficult task to predict the changes in the economic and social environment of the Business Environment.
Example : There has been a sharp decline in the prices of Android smartphones due to the entry of many new companies in the market.
(F) Complexity in Business Environment
- All forces of the Business environment are interrelated and dynamic, which makes it difficult to understand for newer onces.
- The complex nature of the Business environment can be understood if we study it in parts.
(G) Relativity in Business Environment
- Business Environment differs from place to place, region to region, and country to country.
Example: In China and South Korea, the electricity to the industry is provided at cheaper rates as the consumption increases, and hence, it leads to mass production whereas, in India, it is otherwise, higher consumption of electricity leads to costly electricity to industies which results in lower production & higher cost of production in India.
Read More Article Related To This
Business Environment and Its Affecting Factors
A socio-economic entity is a business. As a result, society’s numerous facets are fundamental to the success or failure of every organization as well as to the environment it operates in. PESTLE is a phrase frequently used to describe elements in the external business environment. Political, economic, social, technological, legal, and environmental factors are all represented by this acronym.
- Political Factors
Every component of politics has an impact on a business, from the geographic political climate to the international relations it maintains. While some nations have business-friendly legislation, others have business-restrictive laws. The state of local politics and how it interacts with other nations have a significant impact on the state of business.
- Technical Aspects
One of the main forces in today’s world is technology. Businesses that are unable to keep up with the current technological advancement are finding it difficult to survive. And companies that are utilizing technology to their advantage are outpacing their rivals. Over the past few decades, IT has established itself as a major industry.
- Economic variables
The majority of nations currently experience extremely unstable economies. And this applies to all businesses, big and small. The existence of the open market has, nevertheless, also proven very advantageous for enterprises. The majority of big companies must constantly be mindful of their influence due to the volatility of the global economy.
An organization in the business is defined by the forces that exist inside it. These include the managerial style, the level of machinery utilized, and the work environment. The main internal elements that influence the business environment are listed below.
- Human Resources
A relatively recent idea that has taken over the business world is human resources. Human resources are responsible for managing personnel on a micro level while firms get bigger every day. As a result, it is crucial to establish the business environment.
- Physical Resources
Every business needs resources to function, and how these resources are managed has a significant impact on the environment inside the company.
Every business has a reason for being and a goal to accomplish. The business path is made up of these two elements and how the company envisions itself in the future. These lay out the adjustments that will be made to the corporate structure.
One of the key components of the internal business environment is the hierarchical or non-hierarchical structure of the company that establishes the roles of each employee and management. Different corporate structures exist, including matrix, bureaucratic, and functional ones.
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Why is the business environment unreliable?
It is argued that the business environment is unpredictable since it is challenging to foresee future events, particularly when environmental changes occur too often.
What does a dynamic work environment mean?
A dynamic environment is one where business is taking place and changing quickly.
Why is the concept of the business environment relative?
Since business environments vary from nation to nation and even region to region, they are a relative concept.
What constitutes the primary elements of the business environment?
The business environment has five aspects. These are the areas of the economy, social, law, politics, and technology.
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CBSE Biology Syllabus for Class 12 2024: Download Revised Syllabus PDF
Cbse class 12 biology syllabus 2024: cbse has released the biology curriculum 2023-2024 and students can download the complete syllabus in pdf from the link available in this article. also, find important study materials and resources to prepare for cbse class 12 biology board exam 2024..
CBSE 12th Biology Syllabus Highlights
Subject Code: 044
CBSE Class 12 Biology 2023-24 Course Structure
Cbse biology syllabus for class 12 2023-24, unit-vi reproduction.
Chapter-2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination - types, agencies and examples; out breeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events - development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modes- apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.
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Unit-VIII Biology and Human Welfare
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Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).
Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Applications
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Population interactions - mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes - growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution. (Topics excluded: Organism and its Environment, Major Aboitic Factors, Responses to Abioitic Factors, Adaptations)
Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy (Topics excluded: Ecological Succession and Nutrient Cycles).
Chapter-15: Biodiversity and its Conservation
Biodiversity-Concept, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, Sacred Groves, biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.
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VSA including MCQs, Assertion – Reasoning type questions; SA; LA- I; LA-II; Source-based/ Case-based/ Passage-based/ Integrated assessment questions.
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EVS PROJECT FOR CLASS 12
- Format: Ms Word Document
- Complete project work 1-5 and
- References & questionnaire
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Learn how to do an E.V.S. project in class 12
Are you planning to do an E.V.S. project in class 12? Do you know how to go about doing it? If not, then do read on! We will let you know how to go about the complete process of doing an E.V.S. project. First, we have given you some important tips and advice on choosing your project ; keep reading to find out more!
Have you ever wondered how to do an E.V.S. project? E.V.S. stands for Environmental Value Studies and helps conduct scientific studies vital to the environment. It requires ample research, data collection and analysis, and fieldwork activities. So, if you want to know how to prepare and do an E.V.S. project, keep reading this article!
You don’t need to be a student of 12th to do an E.V.S. project. You can do it anytime in your life. Doing an E.V.S. project is not as simple as it sounds, though. You need to have some basic skills like using M.S. Word and M.S. Excel, which you may or may not have at the moment, but you can easily learn these skills through the Internet.
If you cannot do your E.V.S. project in school, where can you do it? You can go for a walk in nature and see what is happening. The next step is to write down all your experiences, observations and discoveries in a diary form or even on a map to know where every place you want to go or need information about is. By doing so, you will be able to identify various species of plants and animals, their habitats, and different environmental issues, such as deforestation (which means cutting of trees from forests) and air pollution, which leads us to diseases like asthma etc.
It is also important for people who live close by these places to know about any risks because of climate change or other factors. This way, we can help save our environment from destruction and ensure we have healthy living conditions for future generations. It is also very important to take photos or videos of everything you find out there and not to forget anything. So now you know where to study Environmental Studies!
What are Environmental Studies?
Environmental studies have emerged as a major subject that helps us understand and make efforts to improve our relationship with the environment. Ecological studies, also known as E.V.S., combine’ background’ and ‘studies’. So basically, environmental studies include various fields like biology, chemistry, economics etc., which help us study human life with their surrounding environment. It has multiple activities, such as collecting samples from surface water or groundwater resources and checking for natural toxins.
There are numerous ways of achieving these, but one good practice would be having students start an E.V.S project for class 12. Through such projects, students can learn about different aspects of E.V.S.such as the collection and preparation of the sample for testing along with identification of any pollutants, if any, found by conducting lab tests on them. Students can even work towards cleaning up any kind of pollution that they see in their area. They can work towards creating awareness among people through pamphlets and posters.
Students will have to do a lot of research before starting an E.V.S.project for class 12, so they must choose something relevant. An interesting aspect of doing such projects is that it teaches students discipline, perseverance and time management skills since they will have limited time working on their E.V.S. project for class 12. Moreover, after completing such tasks, students will become more aware of what needs to be done regarding protecting our environment and thus making themselves more responsible citizens!
What should I write my essay on? What are some ideas?
How many pages should my essay be?
Why Should We Study Environment?
The environment is a subject that won’t be ignored for long. Each year, people destroy our planet, and it’s up to us, as future leaders of our nation, to set things right. We must preserve and protect our land and educate other people about the problem. It will require a lot of time and patience, so here are some tips that might help you with your ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES EVS PROJECT FOR CLASS 12. What Is An E.V.S? Project?: Environmental studies E.V.S. project for class 12 is a term used to describe projects which discuss environmental problems. These problems may vary from simple issues like lack of clean drinking water or noise pollution caused by vehicles to more complex ones like global warming or deforestation. If you have decided on doing such a project, determine what needs to be discussed. A good idea would be choosing something related to where you live and presenting solutions that can help improve living conditions there.
Global Warming, Ozone Layer Depletion, Sustainability, Conservation EVS PROJECT
An E.V.S. project focuses on solving real-world problems, so you’ll want a topic that matters to you. You could study environmental issues related to your community or help solve problems at home, like working on an energy efficiency upgrade. Whatever subject you choose, start by doing some basic research and considering what issue is most important and how big it is compared with other similar problems. It will give you a good idea of how much time you should plan for and the resources (like your parent’s time) needed for success.
A typical E.V.S. project requires two years of work: At first glance, a two-year project may seem intimidating—especially if you don’t know where to begin. That’s why we recommend starting small and thinking long term. For example, if you want to improve recycling in your city, go door-to-door to collect data about recycling habits instead of organizing a massive public campaign. Then build on your findings until you’re ready to take action—and ask for help along the way! The more time you spend getting comfortable with a subject before taking action, the better off everyone will be when you move forward.
Where can you study Environmental Studies?
Environmental Studies is now a separate subject for class 12. To take up Environmental Studies as a subject, you must study it separately, and there is no option of choosing it as an elective from other issues. The schools and colleges which have started teaching Environmental Studies are Delhi Public School – Vasant Kunj , City Montessori School, Sri Aurobindo International School, Amity International School, Adarsh Vidya Mandir, D.P.S. R.K. Puram and more. If you want to study Environmental Studies, then these are some good places where you can go. However, if your school or college does not offer Environmental Studies as a subject, then don’t worry because you can still study it privately by joining any institute that offers it.
Some popular institutes which offer environmental studies classes include Green Earth Institute (G.E.D.), Ashoka University and many others. These institutes provide different courses on ecological studies like Introduction to Environment, Sustainable Development, Climate Change etc. So if your school or college does not offer Environmental Studies as a subject, don’t worry because there are many other options available for studying it at home or abroad. You need to look for a course online and register yourself with an institute offering it.
Choose one topic from List A or List B below with your parents’ permission. Then, create an action plan based on your chosen topic. For example, if you choose global warming as your topic, write out ways you could help reduce greenhouse gases in our atmosphere through energy-efficient practices such as carpooling with friends or turning off unused lights around the house. Also, mention who else could help make a difference in achieving zero emissions, such as local politicians and community leaders. Remember: You’re writing a persuasive essay here, so mention why someone should care about what you’re saying!
What’s required before doing an E.V.S. Project?
You must look at at least three previous E.V.S. projects from last year. Most likely, these projects will have been assigned by the school. It can give you a better idea about what kind of work is expected and what qualities will be looked for when evaluating your work. Additionally, find out what sort of E.V.S. projects some of your classmates did for class 11.
Try and get their input as well because it’s more than possible that they’ll have some valuable insights into doing an E.V.S. project in Class 12. For example, did they know someone who had done one before? Did they know if there are any specific topics or themes preferred over others? You might also want to see if there are any teachers or mentors who could offer you guidance on writing an E.V.S. project in class 12. Just remember not to go overboard with asking questions.
How do you choose your project partner?
You and your partner will be spending a lot of time working together, so you must be compatible. A few factors might come into play: your geographic location, availability of equipment/facilities/time, and personality. Choose someone who you can communicate with easily; not only is it important for deciding things like meeting times, but communicating during experiments is key. If one person is more hands-on than another, it may make sense to choose a different partner. When choosing a partner, the most important thing is making sure they have similar goals as you—don’t choose someone just because they’re available or willing! If they don’t share your interest in learning about environmental science, then there’s no point in doing an E.V.S. project together.
How to conduct your research?
A research paper begins with a question that you pose. It could be anything. The following are some sample questions: Has global warming occurred? Is it happening today? Can it be reversed? What steps can we take now to ensure future generations have a healthy planet to live on? Conducting research into your chosen topic is crucial and, as such, should not be rushed or skimp on time for sourcing data. However, you must ensure that you remain focused, accurate, and concise at all times.
If you are researching online, make sure that any information sourced is credible and reliable. If using newspapers, make sure they are reputable publications written by experts in their field of study. You will also need to conduct primary research, which means going out into the area yourself or talking to people who know more about your subject than you do (e.g., scientists). Once you have conducted your research, it is important to summarise what has been found so far (this will form part of your essay). In addition, if possible, compare other findings with yours; if there appear to be discrepancies, then explain why these may exist.
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By Jan Senn
It’s been almost 10 years since geography professor David Kaplan, PhD, first proposed the idea of starting an interdisciplinary environmental studies major at Kent State. Now it’s one of the fastest-growing majors at the university, with a group of enthusiastic and motivated students and alumni prepared to address the environmental issues facing our world. The following observations are from three environmental studies events this year.
August 18, 2023 ENVS Opening Meeting Room 302, McGilvrey Hall 3 p.m.
M atthew Arkwright, a junior in the Environmental Studies Program (ENVS), is looking for his nametag. It’s among a couple hundred labels spread out on a table outside Room 302, McGilvrey Hall. He’s showed up to attend the program’s opening meeting for all environmental studies majors and minors during this first week of classes in the 2023 Fall Semester.
“I like to stay updated on the program,” Arkwright says, noting that he’s come to the opening meeting for the past two years (although his first year, everybody had to wear masks due to Covid). “Every single time, there are new minors being introduced, new classes you can substitute for others, new activities.”
The large number of nametags on the table reflects the steady growth of the environmental studies major at Kent State University. Located in the Department of Geography at the College of Arts and Sciences, it officially began with 30 students in August 2017 and has grown to 265 students (230 majors and 35 minors) in August 2023.
“Over time it’s just been progressing, and more and more people have been getting into it,” Arkwright says. “And the more people get into it, the more activities there are, so that’s perfect.”
A native of Lake Milton, Ohio, Arkwright says that when he graduated high school, “I was kind of confused as to where to go and what to study. I made a list and checked off everything I liked doing. And I realized that some of my favorite things were just to be in nature and hike. And I was always interested in science and the political aspect of trying to solve problems.
“Then I found this major,” he says. “When I first started, the program was still relatively new, and I immediately fell in love with it. All the teachers have been so nice, and you get one-on-one time with them when you need it. The classes are more like having fun, doing labs and just enjoying yourself overall.”
“I want to do something that actually makes a change in the environment.”
—Matthew Arkwright, junior environmental studies major
Arkwright says that after graduation, he would like to get into a government program that makes policies to help address environmental issues. “I want to do something that actually makes a change in the environment,” he says. “Policies help make that possible. And, as more technology is invented, you need more people to understand the environment and how it works.”
As Arkwright and other students in the program head into the lecture hall, they pause to scan the room’s tiered seating, then head up or down to reach an open spot.
D avid H. Kaplan, PhD , director of the Environmental Studies Program , stands at the front of the room, looking at the rows of students with a broad smile on his face.
A professor in the geography department since 1995, he was honored with a Distinguished Teaching Award by the Kent State Alumni Association in 2018. Kaplan is well-known nationally and internationally for his work in political and urban geography. He recently was named a fellow of the American Association of Geographers in recognition for his significant contributions to advancing geography, which include serving as a past president of the association. He is also editor-in-chief of the Geographical Review and editor of National Identitie s .
Kaplan says he brought the idea of an environmental studies major to Kent State after taking a summer term off in 2014 to teach some classes at the University of Oregon. There, he recalls, he noticed that all his students were majoring in environmental studies—and they were all great students. He learned how the program had started and how successful it had been in attracting students. And not just in Oregon—environmental studies now is among the most popular majors across the country.
“Since I’d often been in positions like undergraduate coordinator in the geography department, I was always worried about enrollment,” Kaplan says. “Because geography is what we call a ‘discovery major.’ In the United States, at least, you don’t have many people who come in [as first-year students] wanting to be geography majors. I thought anything we could do to improve our number of majors would be a good thing.
“When I came back to Kent, I talked with Mandy Munro-Stasiuk, PhD , the chair of the geography department at the time [now dean of the College of Arts and Sciences] and asked, ‘Why don’t we think about doing an environmental studies major at Kent State?,’” Kaplan says. “I thought it would be a good interdisciplinary major. So, we reached out to other science and social science departments to form a committee and work out a curriculum. It took us about three years to get the whole thing going.”
Kaplan says one of his colleagues, Chris Post, PhD , a geography professor at Kent State Stark, was interested in creating an environmental studies program there , too. “He was excited to partner with us, so we got Stark involved,” adds Kaplan. “The application that we sent over to the Board of Regents was for a two-campus program from the beginning.”
This day, as the program’s seventh year begins, Kaplan addresses his current cohort of students.
“Welcome to environmental studies,” he says. “I hope you found the room okay; I hope you found the building okay. To all the first-year students out there, welcome to Kent State.”
Kaplan gives an overview of the program , including information about the curriculum, electives, advising, education abroad, internships, activities, clubs and other opportunities.
“I try to make this as easy a program as I can,” he tells the students. “Not easy in terms of the courses, but easy in terms of being able to do what you want to do and also being able to understand how to graduate when you want to graduate.”
“I try to make this as easy a program as I can. Not easy in terms of the courses, but easy in terms of being able to do what you want to do.”
—David Kaplan, PhD, director, Environmental Studies Program
According to Kaplan, one thing that makes the environmental studies major special is its interdisciplinary nature, which includes both natural and human aspects related to the environment. It’s a social science degree that looks at how humans influence and are influenced by the environment. (In this way, it differs from environmental science, which focuses mostly on the technical aspects of various environmental issues.)
“So, [in this program] you’ll understand how the environment works from a natural science and also a social science point of view,” he says. “By social science, I mean you’ll understand issues of policy, issues of communication, issues of education—and be able to impart some of this environmental knowledge to the larger public. That is really what a lot of students who major in environmental studies are most interested in doing, although there are many other things you can do as well.”
Another plus, as Kaplan sees it, is the program’s flexibility, which includes a long list of classes that can fulfill the required social science electives—such as courses in architecture, economics, English, fashion design and merchandising, geography, peace and conflict studies, philosophy, paralegal studies, political science, recreation, park and tourism management, and sociology.
Kaplan also mentions opportunities to pursue a double major or add a minor. He assures the students that, with a few exceptions, all the classes offered in the program allow them to waive prerequisites. “That’s the essence of the program and that’s what [the other departments] agree to do,” he says. “You’ll have to contact the department or instructor and say you’re an environmental studies student and they will let you in.” If a problem arises, he says, “get me involved right away. Here’s my email. I’ll do everything possible to make it work for you.”
Speaking of emails, Kaplan tells the students that besides the program website, the best way to get information about the program is to watch for his emails and keep them in a special folder to refer to later. “I will never send you junk emails,” he says. “I will send you stuff related to internship opportunities, curriculum substitutions, and things that will be useful for you as environmental studies students. When the new schedule comes out, I send you a spreadsheet that shows you when classes related to environmental studies are being offered the next semester.
“And if you have any questions at all about anything, email me right away,” he adds. “I’ll respond very quickly—probably in about 10 minutes!” Students in their second, third or fourth year laugh and nod their heads in agreement.
Kaplan introduces the guests he’s invited to the meeting, and they talk about the services they offer to help students succeed.
Bryan Kline , a career advisor in the Career Exploration and Development office at Kent State, encourages students to take advantage of the help his office provides. “As Dr. Kaplan says, this is a very flexible major,” Kline says. “If you have questions about minors, majors, internships, careers, I specialize in environmental areas and work. So come and talk to me. There are flyers on that table with a QR code on the back that helps you navigate to Handshake, where you can schedule appointments with our staff for career advising, and a list of our services.
“When it comes to internships, you need things like resumés and cover letters,” he adds. “I’ll help you hone your skills in those areas. So don’t wait until you’re a senior to work on your resumé. Talk to me earlier about volunteer and study abroad opportunities you could do to add to your resumé—so in the 10 seconds an employer looks at it, they’ll choose yours out of a pile of 50.”
“Talk to me earlier about volunteer and study abroad opportunities you could do to add to your resumé—so in the 10 seconds an employer looks at it, they’ll choose yours out of a pile of 50.”
—Bryan Kline, career advisor, Career Exploration and Development
He also tells the students to take advantage of career fairs for networking and finding other internship opportunities, such as the Fall Internship, Co-op and Job Fair being held Sept. 20, in the Kent Student Center. (It was hosted online during the pandemic; this year it’s in-person.) “It’s the largest fair we do every fall,” he says. “There are going to be over 70 employers there, so come and network.”
Kaplan notes that Kline will be available in Room 417 of McGilvrey Hall every Tuesday from 12–2 p.m., making it easy for students to drop by and ask him questions. He says the room is being repurposed as a place for students to hang out, study or have group meetings. It also will be a venue for special talks and forums, many hosted by the Future Environmental Professionals Club.
Amanda Paulus-Woodyard , senior director of Community Engaged Learning , in the Center for Undergraduate Excellence at Kent State—and a 2023 recipient of the President’s Award of Distinction for advancing student success and community engagement—talks about a number of opportunities available to students. “Our office is about getting you out of the classroom and into real-world experiences to utilize the skills and the knowledge that your professors are imparting to you,” she says. “We have a variety of different programs and offerings that you can take advantage of, so you have more things to put on your resumé and concrete examples you can talk about when interviewing for a future position.”
“Our office is about getting you out of the classroom and into real-world experiences to utilize the skills and the knowledge that your professors are imparting to you.”
—Amanda Paulus-Woodyard, senior director of Community Engaged Learning
She says those offerings include volunteer service opportunities at community partner organizations throughout the region, like the Cuyahoga Valley National Park and local Metro Parks, to help with things like cleaning up the Cuyahoga River or working at community gardens. And there are volunteer opportunities with Flashes Fighting Hunger , an on-campus food pantry that recovers food from local grocery stores (mostly Trader Joe’s) and makes it available to all members of the greater Kent State community.
“We also offer the Service Leaders and Community Partner Advocates Program , where we work with you one-on-one to hear what additional skills and knowledge you’re looking to gain,” Paulus-Woodyard says. “Then we’ll match you with a community partner organization, and you’ll work with that partner for a year and get paid through Kent State University. So, it’s like a paid internship, but it’s not a lot of time commitment—typically about eight to 10 hours a week.”
She notes that they also provide alternative break trips , which are short-term, cost-effective experiences that take place over fall, winter and spring breaks. They enable students to travel and focus on a certain social issue—such as a trip that goes to Lake Mead, Nevada, that focuses on water conservation.
During the opening meeting, Kaplan calls on some of the students to briefly talk about opportunities they’ve had or can offer other students.
Jenna McCrudden, a senior environmental studies major and student athlete in field hockey, talks about recently attending a five-week summer session in Florence , where she earned seven credits toward her major with tuition paid for from an athletic scholarship. “There’s a long list of scholarships that you can apply for, and for some of them you just have to write a two-page essay,” McCrudden says. “Many of them go unused because people don’t apply. The only thing I ended up paying for was my flight. If you’re a freshman or sophomore, go now. Don’t wait until you’re a senior!”
“Many [scholarships] go unused because people don’t apply. The only thing I ended up paying for was my flight. Don’t wait until you’re a senior!”
—Jenna McCrudden, senior environmental studies major, on taking advantage of education abroad opportunities
Joey Higgins, a sophomore environmental studies major and the current president of the student-led Future Environmental Professionals Club , invites interested students to write their name and email on the signup sheet and tells them when and where the monthly club meets. “We mostly meet to talk about different career opportunities within the environmental studies major,” Higgins says. “We partner with other clubs, especially Students for Environmental Change , to do a lot of after-school activities either on or off campus.” Past activities include participating in campus and local area cleanups, nature hikes and service projects, such as educating youth in Northeast Ohio about environmentalism.
Kathryn Burns, a senior environmental studies major, sustainability intern and former editor of the Environmental Studies Newsletter (which is written for and by environmental studies students), introduces the newsletter’s two new co-editors-in-chief: Miles Powell, a senior majoring in environmental studies with minors in political science, geography and GIS (Geographic Information System), and Andrew Shenal, a sophomore majoring in environmental studies.
“I was the last editor, so we’re planning some exciting things for this year,” Burns says. “In the past, the newsletter has published internship spotlights, alumni interviews and a lot of fun articles. This year we’re looking to [add] students, art, other news. If you’re interested in looking at the newsletters , they’re now on the environmental studies program website.”
“They’re really fantastic,” adds Kaplan, the newsletter’s faculty advisor. “We have a lot of different content you’re invited to write about, such as interviewing someone in a job, or a professor about a course. But we’re also interested in people talking about their interests, a trip they took or some issue they’re concerned about.”
As the meeting wraps up, Kaplan encourages the group to attend a picnic the program is hosting the following month as another chance to get together. Then he invites the students to head upstairs and gather in Room 417 to talk with one another and see what’s been going on.
“We’re trying to introduce more of these social events, because I think it’s so helpful to build connection,” Kaplan says. “We realized with the pandemic just how much was lost when we didn’t have that opportunity.”
April 13, 2023 ESDRI Poster Session Kent State University Hotel and Conference Center 4 p.m.
K yotē Youst, a senior in the environmental studies’ Integrative Senior Project class, who uses they, she pronouns, stands in front of their research poster and engages with onlookers in the crowded lobby of the Kent State University Hotel and Conference Center.
A double major in environmental studies and psychology, Youst is among several environmental studies majors taking part in a poster session at the symposium on “Environmental Justice, Ecology & Race,” sponsored by Kent State’s Environmental Science and Design Research Institute (ESDRI) and Anti-Racism and Equity Institute .
Attendees at the two-day symposium are mostly from Ohio and include nature conservancies, activist groups, community members, faculty, staff, undergraduate and graduate students and some non-Kent State graduate students.
The Integrative Senior Project class is the capstone course for the environmental studies major. Students in the course learn about methods of investigation and presentation in the area of environmental studies. The course culminates in a major research project developed and written by each student.
“I think the great thing about this particular class is that, first of all, students are doing their own individual research,” says David Kaplan, PhD, director of the Environmental Studies Program, as he observes the poster session. “And then this [symposium] is an opportunity for them to share that research with this larger community.”
“It’s not their final project but it’s close enough,” Kaplan adds. “Given the timing of the symposium, I feel they were ready to show the kind of work they are doing.”
Youst’s research project looks at local community gardening initiatives and why and how Kent residents participate in them. Numerous shared growing spaces exist throughout Kent, Youst notes, with each one unique in organization, operation and success. Through observation and interviews with garden organizers and participants, Youst has found that despite many potential benefits, community gardens face challenges regarding organization and consistent engagement.
Their poster, which highlights the benefits of community gardens and informs the local community of available opportunities, represents “countless hours of talking to people, doing work in the gardens, reading, trying to sort all my thoughts, and then finally trying to sum this up somehow,” Youst says. “And here it is. I’m happy with how it turned out, but there’s still so much more. [For the final project] I’ll be writing an approximately 25-page paper summarizing everything I did and how I got here.”
As a student in the Honors College , Youst also will be doing an honors project that will summarize their experience at Kent State. “I’ll be using eight to 10 artifacts of my work and then writing around them and creating a narrative of everything I’ve done,” Youst says. “This poster is certainly going to be one of them. I’m really excited to kind of paint a picture of where I started, how I meandered around all these different departments, and how I ended up very close to where I started—but with a whole different perspective.”
“My educational journey has equipped me with an expansive skillset to cultivate the collective healing, nourishment and well-being that inspires everything I do.”
— Kyotē Youst, BA ’23
To describe that meandering journey, Youst says, “I started out in outdoor recreation management, then I went to early childhood education, then I went to psychology, then I ended up in environmental studies. I had to do some navigating to figure out how to do these things that are really important to my heart, and in a way that I actually feel like I get to make an impact. A lot of it is at that grassroots level of just meeting people in the flesh in the real world, establishing those connections, and connecting the right people with each other.”
For Youst, those connections (many made through Kent State’s Community Engaged Learning program) have included work as a community partner advocate at Walls Elementary School in Kent, with the Let’s Grow Together Coalition . At the school, Youst led a reduced waste program, collecting food scraps from the school cafeteria and turning them into compost for the school’s community garden. They also worked as a community partner advocate at Let’s Grow Akron , a coalition of 30 different community gardens across Akron, and volunteered at the Thomas-Anderson Memorial Garden in Kent’s South End neighborhood.
“Now, I am exploring potential employment opportunities to dive into following my graduation in December,” Youst says. “I eagerly anticipate every forthcoming opportunity to reconnect people with Mother Earth. My educational journey has equipped me with an expansive skillset to cultivate the collective healing, nourishment and well-being that inspires everything I do. I am ever grateful for each and all of those who have helped me become who I am today.”
Four days later, on April 17, Youst again presented their poster at Kent State’s annual Undergraduate Symposium on Research, Scholarship and Creative Endeavors , held in the Kent Student Center. Youst and mentor David Kaplan won second place in the category of social science/education/public health.
Update: In November, Youst was hired as a seasonal outreach naturalist with the Summit Metroparks. “I’ll help facilitate a children's nature club at the Summit Lake Nature Center, along with other programming throughout the parks system,” Youst says. “The nature center also shares an attached community garden with Let’s Grow Akron, where we can engage with the community’s children through a variety of activities. I’ve already been helping there this semester through my connection to Let’s Grow Akron, and it is a wonderfully special space. I am so excited to take on a more substantial role with such a great local initiative!”
March 16, 2023 Career Pathways in Environmental Studies class Room 234, McGilvrey Hall 2 p.m.
“T oday we’re going to have a panel of people who work in parks,” announces David Kaplan, PhD, to the environmental studies majors who have gathered in Room 234, McGilvrey Hall, for a Career Pathways in Environmental Studies class.
The one-credit, pass-fail class (only offered in the spring) is a new addition to the major’s requirements, which were revised for the first time last year. Kaplan says he added the professional development class to get students thinking about what they want to do after college and preparing for next steps—which could include talking with career advisors, polishing a resumé and cover letters, opening a LinkedIn account and perhaps applying for graduate school.
Kaplan is also inviting employers and graduates of the program, working in some aspect of environmental studies, to take part in panels related to their particular area and to answer questions from students in the class.
Today’s panel includes Pam Machuga, a park ranger at the Cuyahoga Valley National Park who works in community engagement and building relationships with underserved populations; Matthew “Woody” Woodyard, BA ’21, an interpretive naturalist at Summit Lake Nature Center , located near a marginalized urban community; and Bob Lange, natural areas steward at Portage Park District , whose job involves controlling invasive plants, documenting rare plant species and monitoring stream quality.
Machuga and Lange have hired environmental studies students as interns. Woodyard, who was a non-traditional student with children (and is married to Amanda Paulus-Woodyard, senior director of Community Engaged Learning), interned with Machuga while he was a student at Kent State.
As the panel members talk about how they got their current jobs and what they do, the students in the class ask questions.
One student wants to know what exactly is meant by “interpretation.”
“People have different definitions for it,” Machuga says, “but mine would be education with inspiration. How can we facilitate that connection to the parks so that the next generation has access to and loves their parks as much as we do? National parks are voted in by Congress and could be taken away just as easily. Interpreters help people find relevance in their parks so that they care enough to help preserve them for the next generation.”
“Interpreters help people find relevance in their parks so that they care enough to help preserve them for the next generation.”
—Pam Machuga, park ranger, Cuyahoga Valley National Park
“When I’m doing an interpretive program, I’m trying to help folks foster their own connection to the resource,” Woodyard adds. “That involves meeting people where they are, reading the audience, asking questions to find out what they know, fostering curiosity, appreciation, mindfulness and just really connecting to nature.”
Another student wants to know the importance of getting a Certified Interpretive Guide certificate when applying for naturalist positions.
“It’s great training,” Woodyard says. “You’re learning skills you might not be taught in the classroom: how to build a concise, consecutive program to present to the public, how to figure out your target audience. And I think it does bolster your resumé. My advice is if you can get in somewhere that wants you to get the certificate , push for it and see if they can fund it for you. Because it’s not a cheap course.”
When it comes to finding a job, all the panelists share advice.
“Networking is huge in this field,” Woodyard says. “It is a challenging field to get into. So, the more people you know, the more you’re putting your work out there, the better chances you have.”
“It is a challenging field to get into. So, the more people you know, the more you’re putting your work out there, the better chances you have.”
—Matthew “Woody” Woodyard, BA ’21
Lange agrees. “Keep those connections strong and don’t get discouraged,” he says. “Things change. I once lost out on a park biologist position, but I kept in touch and in a couple years the person who got the position was gone.”
“Every summer, if you’re able, do an internship, get a job or volunteer,” Machuga says. “And put everything you’ve done on your resumé. When I look at resumés, it’s the experience that jumps out at me. If you’re a student or recent graduate and you want to work for the National Park Service, you can apply for Pathways Programs [which offer current students and recent graduates paid internships and streamlined hiring programs to explore federal career opportunities].”
“I have a couple kids at home, so I had to stay local,” Woodyard adds. “But while you’re young, if an opportunity to move and get a job is available, take it. Take that $12 per hour job where housing is paid for. You might struggle at the time, but it’s going to be worth it for the experience.”
The last student to ask a question wants to know what park staff do in the winter.
“Put our coat and gloves on,” Woodyard says. “We program through the winter. Maybe not as much, but we definitely get out there—whether it’s snowshoeing or winter campfires or a hike in the snow.”
Career Possibilities in Environmental Studies
Possible careers with an environmental studies major include:
Public relations specialist
Fundraiser for environmental causes
Environmental policy analyst
Natural resources manager
Click here to download a PDF with details on environmental studies career possibilities.
View a video presentation of David Kaplan, PhD, introducing the environmental studies major below:
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Using AMDP in CDS and Some Useful Functions
I am excited to share my first blog article with you.
I have participated in a project that includes a complex CDS structure and lots of AMDP classes recently. We have used lots of functions like ROW_NUMBER(), RANK() and DENSE_RANK(). I wanted to explain how these functions work and mention useful pin points for other people that are new to ABAP, like myself. I have kept the examples simple for beginners to understand better and use these as templates for more complex scenarios.
First of all, I will explain the concepts of CDS, Table Function and AMDP as well as their relationships with each other.
CDS (Core Data Services): • It is the upgraded version of ‘view’ in ABAP. • It can be created to read and process the data in the database layer. • CDS is designed for a singular logic set, producing only one result set, so a debugger can not be put in it. • Defined in ABAP repository using SQL DDL syntax. • Use open SQL language.
AMDP (ABAP Managed Database Procedures): • AMDP is a class that allows us to write the Object Oriented classes at back-end for the views mentioned above. • It is a simple ABAP class method. • It is able to have multiple result returns on complex logic. • It can process and modify the data on the database layer. • Debugger can be put inside. • Use native SQL language.
Why we have the need to consume AMDP in CDS?
When database requires specific functions that open SQL does not include, then we need to consume AMDP in CDS. For example, in this case, if it needs us to perform complex calculations in CDS, sorting or deleting multiplied data, we can achieve this with AMDP.
How do we create the communication between CDS and AMDP?
Table Function • It is used to represent a specific function in CDS and called within AMDP or CDS views. • By using CDS and AMDP, more flexible and higher performance solutions can be achieved both in the subjects of data modelling and database operations. • Natively implemented on the database.
To schematize the relationship between CDS, AMDP and Table Function simply;
Let’s talk about the ROW_NUMBER, RANK and DENSE_RANK functions if we are familiar with the concepts now. Since I think that these functions can be understood better with examples, let’s start by creating a simple example.
1. Creating CDS
First we start with creating a CDS which will consume our Table Function.
By clicking right to our package, choose the option new -> other ABAP Repository Object and Choose data definition.
In our scenario, we are taking our data from the table that includes the production place and products made in there.
2. Creating Table Function
• RETURNS: These are the set of fields that we want to review in our CDS and will return from our AMDP class.
• @Environment.systemField : #CLIENT : It is given the current client ID implicitly by the Open SQL statement SELECT and can be used to restrict the results set in the Native SQL implementation of the function. ( https://help.sap.com/doc/abapdocu_751_index_htm/7.51/en-us/abencds_f1_parameter_annotations.htm )
•At this point we should call our AMDP class. (AMDP gets active before creating the class too.)
3. Creating AMDP
• IF_AMDP_MARKER_HDP: It is used to making ABAP classes compatible with SAP HANA database features and performing some special calculations.
•We need to specify the table function we will use at this point.
( abap-cheat-sheets/12_AMDP.md at main · SAP-samples/abap-cheat-sheets · GitHub ABAP Keyword Documentation (sap.com) )
•We have created out CDS, Table Function and AMDP Class. Now I want to give some examples about the functions I have mentioned at the beginning of my blog.
•Let’s assume we have a table that has a product id, a product name, production quantity, a purchase price (EUR), a selling price (EUR), a production start date and production end date.
•It indicates a row number for every row on the table.
• OVER( ORDER BY <X> DESC/ASC) Clause: It is the order of ‘sort variable <X> as decreasing/ascending and give a line number for the sorted variable <X> ’
•Let’s do this to the product quantity in our example.
Note: We deleted the zeros with LTRIM function.
We can anaylize the result by running the Table Function.
But what if we have two arragment criteria?
•To give an example if we want to arrange 008(wardrobe) and 004(frame) according to product quantity primarily and then according to production id;
•We should arrange our code like showed below;
The first value we wrote in Order By is the priority value. We should write the values inside the Order By in accordance to the priority order we want.
ROW_NUMBER () function using PARTITION BY Clause:
•The field we wrote inside Partition BY gives a different row number to the every row. If there are more records for the same data, ORDER BY() continues increasingly or decreasingly in accordance to the value we wrote.
A USEFUL TRICK: When our data duplicates, we can eliminate the duplicating data by writing return row_number = ‘1’ and showcasing the every unique row. For example let’s assume that we want to showcase the every unique production quantity row.
•It gives a different number for every different row. If there is multiple identical rows, it gives the same row number to them. Then skips the row as it has given a different number to the row and continues as normal. Let’s analyse the example to understand better.
•Product quantity of 008(wardrobe) and 004(frame) are the same. Rank function gives the same row number to both because of it’s feature. Then continues as if it matched the 004(frame) with the number for.
•It gives different numbers to every different row. It gives the same number if two rows are the same but differently from the RANK function, it continues assigning numbers to the next rows without skipping a number for the row it gave the same number to.
•To understand the difference better, I would like to showcase both functions in a way we can see those side by side.
4.Calling Table Function Through CDS:
The functions I mentioned were our most commonly used functions with AMDP in our project. With this, we came to the conclusion of my blog article I wrote to explain CDS, Table Function and AMDP simply as well as understanding the differences between them. I hope it was successfully explained for beginners and also was a well made template for the ones who just recently began their ABAP journey already. I wish all of you a good day.
Some useful links: ABAP Keyword Documentation (sap.com) ABAP News for Release 7.50 – CDS Table Functions Implemented by AMDP | SAP Blogs Cheat Sheet CDS ABAP (brandeis.de)
Good use case and summarization, thank you for sharing.
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Very detailed explanation about the topic!
Thanks for sharing! I'd suggest to add a disclaimer somewhere that this example represents an old version. (News link is for 7.50, so that sounds about right.) Classic CDS views are now considered obsolete and have been replaced by CDS view entity. So if anyone is reading this and is using S/4HANA 2020 or later, please don't use classic CDS.
There are also some statements that I don't think are accurate. For example, "CDS is designed for a singular logic set, producing only one result set, so a debugger can not be put in it." It is correct that there is no debugging but I don't think "singular logic set" is the reason. Actually I don't even understand what that means... There is more stuff like this in the text. E.g. on AMDP "multiple result returns" - not sure what you mean; "can process and modify the data on the database layer" - it does not modify the data, it can manipulate and enrich the data for consumption. Etc., etc. Might want to check your information sources.
For the illustrations, I'd switch from dark to light theme before taking screenshots. It's difficult to see red color on black background.
For reference, there are many blog posts on AMDP subject, some are covering old versions too because that was a new version when they were written. This is just from the top of the search.
Implement and consume your first ABAP Managed Database Procedure on HANA - very nice and detailed post for version 7.40
Step-by-Step procedure for creation, execution and storing of ABAP Managed Database Procedures in HANA
About ROW_NUMBER(), RANK(), and DENSE_RANK() Functions in SAP HANA - I prefer explanation in this post personally
SQL Script for ABAP Managed Database Procedures(AMDP)-Code pushdown for a better performance!
ABAP Managed Database Procedure - nice detailed post
Consume CDS View inside CDS Table Function by using AMDP - this one is using view entity
There are more but apparently we can't include more than 7 links in a comment. 🙂 My Google search keyword was "AMDP site:blogs.sap.com".
Great blog, very useful! Thank you for sharing.
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