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United States Patent and Trademark Office - An Agency of the Department of Commerce

Patents Assignments: Change & search ownership

Change of owner (assignment) and change of owner name.

During examination of a pending patent application or after the patent is granted, the owner of the patent may change: 1) the original owner may transfer ownership to another entity or party, through an "assignment;" or 2) the original owner may retain ownership but change its name. The original owner should record the assignment or name change with the USPTO's Assignment Recordation Branch by filing a Recordation Cover Sheet along with a copy of the actual assignment or proof of name change.

Change Ownership - Electronic Patent Assignment System (EPAS)

Use EPAS to create and submit a Patent Assignment Recordation Coversheet by completing on-line web forms and attaching the supporting legal documentation as black and white TIFF or PDF for submission via the internet. You may email questions about filing electronic patent assignments to [email protected] (link sends e-mail) .

Patent Assignment Search

Use  Patent Assignment Search  to search the database of all recorded Patent Assignment information from 1980 to the present (Patent Assignments recorded prior to 1980 are maintained at the National Archives and Records Administration). You may email questions about searching patent assignments to [email protected] .

For further information, you may contact the Assignment Recordation Branch Customer Service Desk at 571-272-3350 from 8:30 am – 5:00 pm Eastern Time.

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Patent assignment — How to guide

updated November 21, 2023 · 13min read

1. Overview

A company’s ability to buy and sell property is essential to its long-term life and vitality. Although it does not take up physical space, too much intellectual property can burden a company, directing limited funds towards maintaining registrations, defending against third-party claims, or creating and marketing a final product. Selling unused or surplus intellectual property can have an immediate positive effect on a company’s finances, generating revenue and decreasing costs. When it does come time to grow a business, companies looking to purchase property (including patents and other inventions) to support their growth must be sure that the seller does, in fact, have title to the desired items. A properly drafted patent assignment can help in both circumstances. 

A patent assignment is the transfer of an owner’s property rights in a given patent or patents, and any applications for such patents. These transfers may occur on their own or as parts of larger asset sales or purchases. Patent assignment agreements provide both records of ownership and transfer and protect the rights of all parties.

If you follow the enclosed sample and guidelines, you will have a written acknowledgment of the rights and responsibilities being transferred as part of your sale. This will provide essential documentation of ownership and liability obligations and you will be well on your way to establishing a clear record of title for all of your patents. 

2. Dos & don’ts checklist

  • A patent is a set of exclusive rights in an invention given by the government to its inventor for a limited period of time. Essentially, in exchange for the inventor’s agreement to make his or her invention public and allow others to examine and build on that work, the government provides the inventor with a short-term monopoly for his or her creation. In other words, he or she is the only person who can make, use, or sell that invention.
  • A patent assignment can take many forms. It can be the transfer of an individual’s entire interest to another individual or company. It can also be the transfer of a specific part of that interest (e.g., half interest, quarter interest, etc.) or a transfer valid only in a designated area of the country. The exact form of the transfer is specific to the agreement of the parties.
  • Licenses are different than assignments. The individual who receives license rights from the patent holder is not gaining ownership—rather, he or she is getting assurance from the patent holder that he or she will not be sued for making, using, or selling the invention. The terms of the license will vary from agreement to agreement, and may address issues of royalties, production, or reversion. If you are looking only to license your invention, and not to sell all or part of it, you should not use the enclosed document.
  • A patent transfer is usually accomplished through a contract, like the written agreement form that follows. However, after the parties have negotiated and signed their agreement, the transfer must be recorded with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The agreement will not be effective if this registration is not made. Moreover, if the transfer is not recorded within three (3) months from the date of the assignment, there can be no later purchasers. In other words, the patent is no longer sellable to a third party by the assignee if it is not recorded quickly and correctly.
  • There is a $40 fee for recording each assignment of a patent or patent application. If you are submitting your transfer papers to the USPTO by mail, you should send them (together with a cover sheet and the fee) to Mail Stop Assignment Recording Services, Director of the United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Note that if you submit your assignment by mail, you should not use the original, since the document will not be returned to you. In addition, the copy you submit must be on paper that is “flexible, strong white, non-shiny, and durable.”
  • Although you should feel free to adapt the document to suit your arrangement, you should always indentify the patent(s) being assigned by their USPTO number and date, and include the name of the inventor and the invention’s title (as stated in the patent itself). This is a requirement of federal law and failure to follow it could invalidate your assignment.
  • The advantage of selling your invention or patent outright (and not simply licensing or attempting to develop and market it yourself) is that you are guaranteed payment at the price you and the purchaser have negotiated. On the other hand, that one-time payment is all that you will ever receive for your property. You will no longer have the right to control anyone else’s use of your creation. By using it yourself or offering a temporary license, you retain the potential for future income. However, such income is by no means certain, and your opportunities are paralleled by risk. Before selling all of your rights in a patent or patent application, make sure this is the best (and most lucrative) approach for you and your company.
  • Do not enter into an agreement without completing your due diligence. If you are purchasing a patent, conduct searches with the USPTO and online directories to make sure the seller actually has complete and unique rights in the offered property. Has an application already been filed by another person or company? What are the chances that this is a patentable item? Although your findings will not provide guarantees, you may have protection as an “innocent purchaser” if disputes arise. You might also find critical information about the value of the patent. Consider hiring a professional to help in your investigation. Comparing patents and applications often requires a specialized and technical understanding to know how useful and unique each one is. 
  • If you are selling an invention or patent, make sure you own it. Although this may seem obvious, ownership of intellectual property is sometimes not clear- cut. This may be the case if, for example, the invention was created as part of your employment or if it was simply sold or otherwise transferred to somebody else. A thorough search of the USPTO website should be conducted before you attempt to sell your property.
  • Both parties should review the assignment carefully to ensure that all relevant deal points have been included. It is better to be over-inclusive than under-inclusive. Do not assume that certain expectations or terms are agreed to if they are not stated expressly on the document.
  • Sign two copies of the assignment, one for you and one for the other party.
  • It’s a good idea to have your assignment notarized. This will limit later challenges to the validity of a party’s signature or of the transfer itself.
  • If your agreement is complicated, do not use the enclosed form. Contact an attorney to help you draft an assignment that will meet your specific needs. 

3. Patent assignment instructions

The following provision-by-provision instructions will help you understand the terms of your assignment.

The numbers and letters below (e.g., Section 1, Section 2(a), etc.) correspond to the provisions in the agreement. Please review the entire document before starting your step-by-step process. 

  • Introduction of parties. Identifies the document as a patent assignment. Write in the date on which the agreement is signed. Identify the parties and, if applicable, what type of organization(s) they are. Note that each party is given a name (e.g., “Assignor”) that will be used throughout the agreement. The Assignor is the party that is giving (“assigning”) its ownership interest and the Assignee is the party receiving it.
  • Recitals. The “whereas” clauses, referred to as recitals, define the world of the assignment and offer key background information about the parties. In this agreement, the recitals include a simple statement of the intent to transfer rights in the patent.  Remember that the Assignor can transfer all or part of its interest in the Patents. If the entire property is being transferred, use the word “all.” If only part of an Invention or Patent is being transferred, specify the amount being assigned (e.g., one-half, one-quarter, etc.).
  • Section 1: Assignment of patents. This constitutes the assignment and acceptance of the assignment of the Patents and Inventions. Note that the property being assigned is not described in the agreement itself. The Assignment references “Schedule 1,” and explains that the full description is located on that schedule. Be as complete and clear as possible in your description of the property being transferred.
  • Section 2: Consideration. In most agreements, each party is expected to do something. This obligation may be to perform a service, transfer ownership of property, or pay money. In this case, the Assignee is giving money (sometimes called “consideration”) to receive the Assignor’s property. Enter the amount to be paid, and indicate how long the Assignee has to make that payment after the agreement is signed.
  • Section 3: Authorization to director. The Assignor’s authorization to issue any Patents in the Assignee’s name. In other words, this tells the head of the USPTO that the transfer is valid and that ownership is changing hands by virtue of the Assignment. The bracketed last sentence is only applicable if the assignment is being recorded before a patent application number has been issued by the USPTO. It allows this application number to be written in after the assignment is recorded. If the applications have already been filed, and there have been application numbers issued, delete this bracketed sentence.
  • 4(a): it is the sole owner of the Inventions and the Patents. If there are other owners who are not transferring their interests, use the bracketed phrase. This means that the only part being transferred is the Assignor’s part.
  • 4(b): it has not sold or transferred the Inventions and the Patents to any third party
  • 4(c): has the authority to enter the agreement.
  • 4(d): does not believe that the Inventions and the Patents have been taken from any third party without authorization (e.g., a knowing copy of another company’s invention).
  • 4(e): does not know of any permissions that have to be obtained in order for the assignment to be completed. In other words, once the agreement is signed, the assignment will be effective without anyone else’s input.
  • 4(f): the Patents weren’t created while the creator was employed by a third party. In many cases, if an individual was employed by a company and came up with a product, the company will own that product. This section offers assurance to the Assignee that there are no companies that will make that claim about the Patents being sold. If you and the other Party want to include additional representations and warranties, you can do so here. 
  • 5(a): has the authority to enter the agreement.
  • 5(b) has enough funds to pay for the assignment.  If you and the other Party want to include additional representations and warranties, you can do so here. 
  • Section 6: No early assignment. Prevents the Assignee from re-transferring the inventions or patents, or using any of them as collateral for loans, until it has made complete payment of the money due under the agreement. 
  • Section 7: Documentation. The Assignor’s promise to help with any paperwork needed to complete an assignment (e.g., filing information about the assignment with the USPTO and transferring document titles). The bracketed phrases make the additional promise that the Assignor will help with transfer paperwork for filings outside of the country. If this is not relevant to your agreement, delete the bracketed phrases.
  • Section 8: No further use of inventions or patents . Indicates that after the effective date of the agreement, the Assignor will stop using all of the inventions and patents being transferred and will not challenge the Assignee’s use of those inventions or patents.
  • Section 9: Indemnification. A description of each party’s future obligations, if the patent or any application is found to infringe on a third party’s rights. There are two options provided, and you should choose the one that best fits with your situation. In the first, the Assignor takes all responsibility for infringement, promising to pay all expenses and costs relating to the claim. In the second, the Assignor makes its responsibilities conditional, greatly limiting its obligations if a claim is brought. Select only one of these options, and delete the other.
  • Section 10: Successors and assigns. States that the Parties’ rights and obligations will be passed on to successor organizations (if any), or organizations to which rights and obligations have been permissibly assigned.
  • Section 11: No implied waiver. Explains that even if one Party allows the other to ignore break an obligation under the agreement, it does not mean that Party waives any future rights to require the other to fulfill those (or any other) obligations.
  • Section 12: Notice. Lists the addresses to which all official or legal correspondence should be delivered. Write in a mailing address for both the Assignor and the Assignee.
  • Section 13: Governing law. Allows the parties to choose the state laws that will be used to interpret the document. Note that this is not a venue provision. The included language will not impact where a potential claim can be brought. Write the applicable state law in the blank provided.
  • Section 14: Counterparts/electronic signatures. The title of this provision sounds complicated, but it is simple to explain: it says that even if the Parties sign the agreement in different locations, or use electronic devices to transmit signatures (e.g., fax machines or computers), all of the separate pieces will be considered part of the same agreement. In a modern world where signing parties are often not in the same city - much less the same room - this provision ensures that business can be transacted efficiently, without sacrificing the validity of the agreement as a whole.
  • Section 15: Severability. Protects the terms of the agreement as a whole, even if one part is later invalidated. For example, if a state law is passed prohibiting choice-of-law clauses, it will not undo the entire agreement. Instead, only the section dealing with choice of law would be invalidated, leaving the remainder of the assignment enforceable.
  • Section 16: Entire agreement. The Parties’ agreement that the document they’re signing is “the agreement” about the issues involved. Unfortunately, the inclusion of this provision will not prevent a Party from arguing that other enforceable promises exist, but it will provide you some protection from these claims.
  • Section 17: Headings. Notes that the headings at the beginning of each section are meant to organize the document, and should not be considered operational parts of the note.
  • Schedule 1: List of patents. In order for a patent assignment to be effective, the patents being transferred must be clearly identified. Be thorough in your description and attach any registrations or drawings that you may have. If you do include drawings, reference the inclusion of those items in the schedule (e.g., “* See attached drawing”). Enter the patent registration number, and the name of all of the registered inventors of the patent(s) (even if they are not parties to this Assignment). If the assignment relates to a patent application, identify the application number (consisting of a series code and a serial number, e.g., 07/123,456). If the assignment relates to a provisional patent application, or an application that is being filed at the same time as (or after) the assignment, you must also provide the name of each inventor and the title of the invention.


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21 Jun 2018


By Michael K. Henry, Ph.D.


  • Intellectual Property
  • Patent Prosecution

This is the second in a two-part blog series on owning and transferring the rights to a patent. ( Read part one here. )

As we discussed in the first post in this series, patent owners enjoy important legal and commercial benefits: They have the right to exclude others from making, selling, using or importing the claimed invention, and to claim damages from anyone who infringes their patent.

However, a business entity can own a patent only if the inventors have assigned the patent rights to the business entity. So if your employees are creating valuable IP on behalf of your company, it’s important to get the patent assignment right, to ensure that your business is the patent owner.

In this post, we’ll take a closer look at what a patent assignment even is — and the best practices for approaching the process. But remember, assignment (or transfer of ownership) is a function of state law, so there might be some variation by state in how all this gets treated.

assignment patent application


A patent assignment is an agreement where one entity (the “assignor”) transfers all or part of their right, title and interest in a patent or application to another entity (the “assignee”). 

In simpler terms, the assignee receives the original owner’s interest and gains the exclusive rights to pursue patent protection (through filing and prosecuting patent applications), and also to license and enforce the patent. 

Ideally, your business should own its patents if it wants to enjoy the benefits of the patent rights. But  under U.S. law , only an inventor or an assignee can own a patent — and businesses cannot be listed as an inventor. Accordingly, patent assignment is the legal mechanism that transfers ownership from the inventor to your business.


It’s common to confuse the two concepts, but patent assignment is different from licensing. 

In a license agreement, the patent owner gives another entity (the “licensee”) permission to use the patented technology, while the patent owner retains ownership. 

In a patent assignment, the original owner permanently transfers its ownership to another entity.


Before your employees begin developing IP,  implement strong hiring policies  that ensure your IP rights will be legally enforceable in future.

If you’re bringing on a new employee, have them sign an  employment agreement  that establishes up front what IP the company owns — typically, anything the employee invents while under your employment.

The employment agreement should include the following provisions:

  • Advance assignment of any IP created while employed by your company, or using your company’s resources
  • An obligation to disclose any IP created while employed by your company, or using your company’s resources
  • An ongoing obligation to provide necessary information and execute documents related to the IP they created while employed, even after their employment ends
  • An obligation not to disclose confidential information to third parties, including when the employee moves on to a new employer

To track the IP your employees create, encourage your employees to document their contributions by completing  invention disclosure records .

But the paperwork can be quite involved, which is why your employment policies should also include  incentives to create and disclose valuable IP .


Some of the innovators working for your business might not have a formal employer-employee relationship with the business. If you don’t make the appropriate arrangements beforehand, this could complicate patent assignments. Keep an eye out for the following staffing arrangements:

  • Independent contractors:  Some inventors may be self-employed.
  • Joint collaborators:  Some inventors may be employed by, say, a subsidiary or service company instead of your company.
  • Anyone who did work through an educational institution : For example, Ph.D. candidates may not be employees of either their sponsoring institution or your company.

In these cases, you can still draft contractor or collaborator agreements using the same terms outlined above. Make sure the individual innovator signs it before beginning any work on behalf of your company.

assignment patent application


In addition to getting signed employment agreements, you should  also  get a written assignments for each new patent application when it’s filed, in order to memorialize ownership of the specific patent property.

Don’t rely exclusively on the employment agreement to prove ownership:

  • The employment agreement might contain confidential terms, so you don’t want to record them with the patent office
  • Because employment agreements are executed before beginning the process of developing the invention, they won’t clearly establish what specific patent applications are being assigned

While you  can  execute the formal assignment for each patent application after the application has been filed, an inventor or co-inventor who no longer works for the company might refuse (rightly or wrongly) to execute the assignment.

As such, we recommend executing the assignment before filing, to show ownership as of the filing date and avoid complications (like getting signatures from estranged inventors).


Well-executed invention assignments should:

  • Be in writing:  Oral agreements to assign patent rights are typically not enforceable in the United States
  • Clearly identify all parties:  Include the names, addresses, and relationship of the assignor(s) and assignee
  • Clearly identify the patent being assigned:  State the patent or patent application number, title, inventors, and filing date
  • Be signed by the assignors
  • Be notarized : If notarization isn’t possible, have one or two witnesses attest to the signatures


Without a recorded assignment with the U.S. patent office, someone else could claim ownership of the issued patent, and you could even lose your rights in the issued patent in some cases. 

So the patent owner should record the assignment through the  USPTO’s Assignment Recordation Branch . They can use the  Electronic Patent Assignment System (EPAS)  to file a  Recordation Cover Sheet  along with a copy of the actual patent assignment agreement.

They should submit this paperwork  within three months  of the assignment’s date. If it’s recorded electronically, the USPTO  won’t charge a recordation fee .

Need to check who owns a patent?  The USPTO website  publicly lists all information about a patent’s current and previous assignments.


You’ll need only one patent assignment per patent application, unless new matter is introduced in a new filing (e.g., in a  continuation-in-part , or in a non-provisional application that adds new matter to a  provisional application ). In that case, you’ll need an additional assignment to cover the new matter — even if it was developed by the same inventors.


If you can’t get an inventor to sign an invention assignment, you can still move forward with a patent application — but you’ll need to document your ownership. To document ownership, you can often rely on an   employee agreement ,  company policy ,  invention disclosure , or other employment-related documentation.


Most assignments transfer all rights, title, and interest in all patent rights throughout the world.

But in some countries, the assignment might not be legally effective until the assignment has been recorded in that country — meaning that the assignee can’t enforce the patent rights, or claim damages for any infringement that takes place before the recordation. 

And there might be additional formal requirements that aren’t typically required in the United States. For example, some countries might require a transfer between companies to be signed by both parties, and must contain one or both parties’ addresses.

If you’re assigning patents issued by a foreign country, consult a patent attorney in that country to find out what’s required to properly document the transfer of ownership.


Crafting robust assignment agreements is essential to ensuring the proper transfer of patent ownership. An  experienced patent professional  can help you to prepare legally enforceable documentation.

Henry Patent Law Firm has worked with tech businesses of all sizes to execute patent assignments —  contact us now  to learn more.

GOT A QUESTION? Whether you want to know more about the patent process or think we might be a good fit for your needs – we’d love to hear from you!

assignment patent application

Michael K. Henry, Ph.D.

Michael K. Henry, Ph.D., is a principal and the firm’s founding member. He specializes in creating comprehensive, growth-oriented IP strategies for early-stage tech companies.

14 Jun 2018


By Michael Henry

Don't miss a new article. Henry Patent Law's Patent Law News + Insights blog is designed to help people like you build smart, scalable patent strategies that protect your intellectual property as your business grows. Subscribe to receive email updates every time we publish a new article — don't miss out on key tips to help your business be more successful.

  • Practical Law

Inventor Assignment of Patent Application

Practical law standard document w-005-1386  (approx. 11 pages).

  • United States

Create and Protect

  • Build a Team
  • Board and Advisors
  • Our Clients

assignment patent application

Who Owns What: Assignment and Ownership of Patents and Applications

intellectual property , strategy , patents , US

Why does ownership of a patent/patent application matter?

A patent is a government-granted property right that can be used to exclude others from making, using, selling, offering to sell, and importing an invention for a specified time. Patents provide important commercial benefits (discussed in detail in our companion piece What You Need To Know About Patents ) — but only for patent owners.

So who owns a patent/patent application?

In the US, the inventor is presumed to be the initial owner of a patent or patent application. If there is more than one inventor, there may be more than one owner. Ownership can be transferred or reassigned. If your company values intellectual property and has employees who are encouraged to innovate, here are a few important strategies to ensure that your company can benefit from patents generated through employee inventions.

  • Agreements with employees and service providers (Automatic Assignment) : Companies should have all employees sign confidential information and inventions assignment agreements (discussed in detail here )  before employees start generating intellectual property. Having employees sign these agreements at the beginning of their employment, before any work is done, is the best course of action. Likewise, failure to correctly structure IP provisions in agreements with third parties such as service providers and consultants prior to the execution of any work has caused serious issues for many companies. A form of confidential information and inventions assignment agreement for California employees is available here , and a form of consulting agreement for US consultants (which contains IP assignment provisions) is available here .
  • Obligation to Assign : In some situations, even if your employees have not signed an agreement, they may still be obligated, either by contract or local law, to assign patent/patent application ownership to your company. For example, this could occur if the invention was developed on the job, the employee was hired specifically to invent for the company, and/or the inventor is an officer of the company.
  • Explicit Assignments : Even when employees have signed appropriate agreements, your company should execute new patent-specific assignments whenever patent applications are filed. These assignments name the specific invention, patent, and/or patent application, and can have additional legal weight if the ownership of a patent is disputed.

Joint ownership of patent/patent application rights can be complicated. As with any property right, multiple owners can make for multiple legal scenarios. For example, co-owners would have to join together to bring a patent infringement lawsuit. By contrast, the opposite is true for licensing : a co-owner can license its patent/patent application rights to a third party, independent of the other co-owner(s), unless they have an agreement otherwise. Co-owners can also independently sell, mortgage, transfer, and will their rights to a patent/patent application. To avoid these kinds of issues, most attorneys recommend that a single entity be the patent/patent application owner, whenever possible. If this is not possible, then it is important to correctly structure IP provisions in an agreement, for example, ideally where one party exclusively licenses back all rights in the co-owned patent/patent application.

How do I make sure my company owns these patents/patent applications? 

Well-structured ownership assignments are legally binding, but what does “well-structured” mean? Patent/patent application assignments have several formal requirements to be considered valid.  Assignments must:

  • Be in writing – unlike some other contracts, oral assignments or oral agreements to assign patent/patent application rights are rarely enforceable;
  • Clearly identify all parties – recite names, addresses, and relationship of both the assignor(s) and assignee;
  • Identify the property clearly – include the patent/patent application number, title, inventors, and filing date;
  • Recite exchange of consideration – this is a standard for almost any contract, and here, even nominal consideration (e.g., $1) is sufficient;
  • Execution be notarized or attested to by one, preferably, two non-inventor witnesses – notarization or witnessing serves as evidence that the signatures (and, thus, the assignment) is valid. There is a lot of interest in utilizing an e-signature platform, such as DocuSign, for execution of Assignments.  However, this is still a developing area, and the rules differ significantly around the world. If use of e-signatures is an important consideration for your Company, e.g., your employees are geographically diversified, you should consult with your IP counsel so as to understand the local laws and potential ramifications in countries that are important to your business.

Following these rules is a good practice and is an essential starting place to ensure the validity and enforceability of your assignment.  However, validity does not end here. As with any contract, the legal language is key to eliminating ambiguity in your agreements.

Finally, make sure that any assignment in a patent/patent application is recorded with the US Patent and Trademark Office ( USPTO ) as soon as possible after execution. If an assignment is not  recorded with the USPTO within three months from its effective date, the assignee’s claim to ownership could be at risk. For example, if an assignor were to subsequently improperly assign to another purchaser that was not aware of the previous assignment and the previous assignment had not been recorded with the USPTO, the subsequent purchaser may be able to successfully claim ownership.

You’re the new owner!

A patent is only as valuable as it is enforceable, and ownership is a key element of enforceability. Licensing , manufacturing, distributing, or otherwise making exclusive use of your invention can only be ensured if the patent is both valid and enforceable.  Having ownership protection in place prior to the development of your intellectual property, as well as the correct legal ownership assignment documents executed afterward, can help ensure that you can make the most of your company’s ingenuity.

Last reviewed: May 18, 2022

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Patent Assignment: Everything You Need to Know

A patent assignment is an irrevocable agreement for a patent owner to sell, give away, or transfer interest to an assignee, who can enforce the patent. 6 min read

Updated November 5, 2020:

Patent Assignment: What Is It?

A patent assignment is a part of how to patent an idea and is an irrevocable agreement for a patent owner to sell, give away, or transfer his or her interest to an assignee, who can benefit from and enforce the patent. The assignee receives the original owner's interest and gains exclusive rights to intellectual property. He or she can sue others for making or selling the invention or design.

There are four types of patent assignments:

Assignment of Rights - Patent Issued: This is for patents that have already been issued.

Assignment of Rights - Patent Application : This is for patents still in the application process. After filing this form, the assignee can be listed as the patent applicant.

Assignment of Intellectual Property Rights - No Patent Issued or Application Filed: This is for unregistered inventions with no patent.

Exclusive Rights

Advantages of a Patent Assignment

Assignees don't create a unique invention or design. They also don't go through the lengthy patent process . They simply assume exclusive rights to intellectual property.

Profit Potential

Many patents cover intellectual property that can earn the owner money. A patent owner can charge a lump sum sale price for a patent assignment. After the transfer, the assignee can start to earn profits from the patent. Both original owners and assignees can benefit from this business arrangement.

Disadvantages of a Patent Assignment

Too Many or Not Enough Inventors

Patents can have multiple owners who invented the product or design. Sometimes patents list too many or not enough inventors. When this happens, owners can argue about an incorrect filing. This kind of dispute can make a patent assignment impossible.

Limited Recourse

Older patents may already have many infringements. Not all patent assignments include the right to sue for past infringements. This is known as the right to causes of action. This can cost the assignee a lot of potential profit.

Examples of What Happens When You File a Patent Assignment vs. When You File a Patent License

When You File a Patent Assignment

The patent owner changes permanently. You file the paperwork with the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). Information about the new owner is available to the public.

Many owners charge a one-time fee for a patent assignment. The original owner doesn't receive additional payments or profits in the future. The new owner receives future profits.

When You File a Patent License

The patent owner doesn't change permanently. Most licenses have a time limit. At the end of the period, the original owner takes control again. Licensing information isn't always available through an online USPTO search. Contact the recordation office directly to get information about patent licenses.

The licensee can assign rights to another person or company. This adds another layer of ownership over the intellectual property.

Many owners charge royalties for a patent license. The licensee pays royalty fees throughout the license period. If the royalty fees are high and the license period is long, a patent assignment may be a better choice for earning the new owner more money.

Common Mistakes

Not Filing an Assignment Document

A verbal agreement is not official. File a patent assignment to change patent ownership.

Taking Action Before Filing

The assignee shouldn't make or sell the invention before the patent assignment is official. If an error or another problem happens, this could be patent infringement .

Making a Filing Error

Patent assignments are official documents. The assignee's name must be legal and correct. Before filing, check the spelling of the assignee name. If the assignee is a business, confirm the legal name. Many patents have more than one owner. List all names on the assignment.

Misidentifying the Patent

Include as much information about the patent as you can. List the patent number and title. Describe the intellectual property completely.

Not Searching for Security Interests

Patents can be collateral. A bank or another party can file a security interest in a patent, and this can limit how much an assignee can earn from a patent. Check for security interests before filing a patent assignment.

Not Filing a Proprietary Information Agreement

Many businesses file patents, as this is part of a business plan , and it's especially common for startup businesses. Inventorship problems can happen if employees file patents instead of the business.

Often, employees have an obligation to assign inventions to a company. This is true if they developed the invention on the job.

To avoid confusion, require employees to sign a proprietary information agreement. This automatically assigns inventions and designs to the business. Other options include signing an automatic assignment or an explicit assignment. These all clarify patent ownership.

Not Being Notarized

Make sure all official documents concerning your patent are notarized. There is a huge legal advantage to being notarized. It makes it so that your documents will be accepted as correct until it is proven otherwise. If you can't get your documents notarized, gather two witnesses. Have them attest to the signatures.

You have to file a patent assignment within three months of signing the form. If you don't, the assignee could lose ownership rights.

Frequently Asked Questions

Where Do I Record a Patent Assignment?

If you have a U.S. patent, record your patent assignment with the USPTO. If you have a foreign patent, file with the correct national patent offices.

I Can't Get a Signature from the Inventor. What Happens Now?

First, it needs to be officially established that:

  • Whoever is pursuing the application has the right to do so.
  • The inventor cannot be reached.

In order to establish this, the patent office will need a copy of the following:

  • the employee agreement
  • the assignment
  • other evidence of the rights

After that, the patent office will continue as if the signature has been obtained, even though it hasn't.

If the inventor has died, the patent office will try to contact the person in charge of managing the deceased's estate or the heir. If the invented refuses to sign or is missing, the patent office will ask for a declaration from the person who is trying to contact them. They will also look at the following items that have been sent to the inventor:

  • Do I Have to File a Patent Assignment if the Owner's Name Changed?

No, you don't need a patent assignment if only the person's or company's name changed. If the company merged with another, you may need a patent assignment.

What if I Make a Mistake on My Patent Assignment?

You can't correct a patent assignment. You have to assign it back to the original owner. Then you have to reassign with the correct information.

How Much Does a Patent Assignment Cost?

The patent assignment fee is $25. Filing electronically doesn't cost extra. You do have to pay an additional $40 fee if you file on paper.

Should I Hire a Lawyer?

Yes, you should get a lawyer to help with a patent assignment. A lawyer will make sure there are no filing errors. A lawyer knows how to describe the patent correctly. Errors and bad descriptions can limit the power of a patent assignment. This could cost the assignee a lot of money in future profits and legal fees.

Steps to File a Patent Assignment

1. Fill Out a Recordation Form Cover Shee t

The Recordation Form Cover Sheet is an official USPTO document. This includes the names of the assignor(s) and the assignee(s). It also includes the patent title and number.

2. Complete a Patent Assignment Agreement

The patent assignment agreement should list the assignor(s) and the assignee(s). It should state that the assignor has the right to assign the patent. It should also describe the intellectual property clearly and completely. It should also explain any financial or other transactions that have to take place. This includes a description of the lump sum payment.

3. Sign the Patent Assignment Agreement

All patent owners and assignees must sign the patent assignment agreement.

4. Submit the Patent Assignment

Finally, submit the patent assignment with the USPTO. You have to pay the assignment fee at this time.

If you need help with patent assignments, you can post your question or concern on UpCounsel's marketplace . UpCounsel accepts only the top 5 percent of lawyers to its site. Lawyers on UpCounsel come from law schools such as Harvard Law and Yale Law and average 14 years of legal experience, including work with or on behalf of companies like Google, Menlo Ventures, and Airbnb.

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