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Will Meta’s VR “Horizon Worlds” Threaten Your Information Privacy & Online Safety?
From the moment Mark Zuckerberg announced the Metaverse , people were skeptical. Many fear that Meta’s vision for the future of virtual reality (VR) landscapes brings with it some serious caveats, particularly in the arenas of privacy and safety.
Since the release of Horizon Worlds — a VR hub that features portals to user-generated worlds — some concerning issues have arisen. Couple that with information about the face and eye-tracking features that are reportedly coming with the next iteration of Meta’s VR tech, the Oculus Quest Pro , and the concern builds.
Facebook (now Meta), doesn’t have the best reputation when it comes to privacy, seemingly favoring profits over data security and user rights. With the added risks of a virtual landscape, many people are wondering if Horizon Worlds is a safe place to visit, do business and interact with other users. So, let’s take a closer look.
Meta’s Horizon Worlds : How Meta Views Its Digital Creation
Horizon Worlds is an online landscape that allows users to engage with creator “worlds” using VR technology. It’s touted as a “ social experience ,” one where users aren’t “just a visitor. [They’re] a part of what makes it great.”
Creation and collaboration are at the heart of the experience, allowing anyone to design immersive experiences that you and other users can discover and explore. While fun and socialization are certainly part of the equation, Meta’s plans stretch beyond those of typical social media platforms when it comes to Horizon Worlds .
Sure, Meta may tout the online landscape’s focus on creators, but its decisions, like the decisions of most businesses, are generally profit-based in the end. For example, Meta intends to let creators sell virtual assets, though it plans to take a 50 percent cut of sales, far more than you see on most digital marketplaces. Data collection and advertisements are also close to Meta’s heart since they create pathways for monetization.
While we don’t know the full extent of how this will shape Horizon Worlds , it’s pretty safe to say that finding various revenue streams within the virtual landscape will be part of Meta’s main focus. While it isn’t inherently an issue that a company wants to turn a profit, how that drive impacts Meta’s decision-making is, potentially, concerning — especially since Facebook has previously sacrificed user privacy and safety in the name of the dollar.
The Privacy and Safety Risks of Hopping into Horizon Worlds
More meta devices means more opportunities for data collection.
Accessing Horizon Worlds is free, but it does, as of now, require you to use a compatible device — namely, an Oculus Quest . Since the VR headset is designed and owned by Meta, the only way you can engage with the Horizon Worlds is through one of the company’s devices. Additionally, you have to log into a Facebook account, creating a direct connection between you, your device and your activity.
While requiring company-created devices doesn’t seem inherently problematic, it could come with risks. VR headsets may gather far more data than you expect through their various sensors, microphones and more. Considering that they’re in a user’s home, that alone should give a person pause, particularly with Meta’s questionable privacy history.
Meta is trying to keep the narrative positive, however. Two Facebook VPs — Andrew Bosworth and Nick Clegg — both assert that the Metaverse will be built responsibly. “The Metaverse won’t be built overnight by a single company,” a blog post written by the pair reads. “We’ll collaborate with policymakers, experts and industry partners to bring this to life.”
There are also claims that the company will engage with civil rights and human rights entities, ensuring the resulting technologies are “built in a way that’s inclusive and empowering.” However, many would-be users have doubts, mainly because the potential for data collection — and the associated financial gains of that data collection — may make that supposed privacy less of a priority for Meta.
Face and Eye-Tracking Are an Advertisers Dream and Could Generate Massive Profits for Meta
The fact that Meta would aim to monetize Horizon Worlds isn’t a surprise. However, the company’s approach might be a cause for concern. The face and eye-tracking technologies built into upcoming Oculus headsets won’t just create new opportunities for immersive experiences, but new paths for advertising, too.
Multiple patent filings have given us some clues as to how Meta may monetize this new digital landscape. Face and eye-tracking data could take personalized advertising to the next level, for starters. After all, it allows Meta — and companies they potentially provide the data to — to gauge your response to various aspects of the virtual landscape, including advertisements.
In many ways, the issue has less to do with the use of the data. Instead, many have fears regarding both informed consent during said data collection and the safeguarding of users’ critical, personal details. For example, a person’s eyes are highly unique, which is why technologies like retinal scanner locks work so well. However, even if Meta claims it’ll anonymize data, its access to your Facebook account information coupled with that biometric data is concerning, to say the least.
There are also concerns that face- and eye-tracking data may reveal more than you’d like. Depending on the environment and the sensor’s capabilities, the data may capture eye movements or facial expressions that allow Meta to determine whether you like a person or not — or even your level of attraction to them.
By and large, eye movements and micro-expressions are unconscious and involuntary. Since that’s the case, they’re incredibly revealing. While using a “like” button requires conscious action and an active decision, what you tell a company through these involuntary movements isn’t entirely under your control.
Safety in Horizon Worlds Isn’t Just About Data
In Horizon Worlds , users can engage directly with one another. While the main goal is likely to create opportunities for gathering with loved ones and meeting new friends, the approach also comes with risks, not unlike the risks associated with all social media platforms.
Currently, there are already multiple reports of women being sexually harassed and groped while in the VR landscape. While Facebook did unroll a new feature — a “ Personal Boundary ,” which creates a bubble of space around your avatar — to combat the issue, that won’t inherently prevent verbal assaults or other forms of harassment.
Additionally, the Personal Boundary isn’t a requirement. Instead, it’s an optional setting that users can switch on and off. By default, the Personal Boundary will be on for non-Friends only, but will allow people on each other’s Friends lists to enter into close proximity to one another. However, being on someone’s Friends list isn’t an explicit demonstration of trust. Since that’s the case, users may either need to update the setting on their own or exercise caution when engaging with others.
It also isn’t clear how much Meta can — or, ultimately, will — do to safeguard users from this kind of cyberbullying experience, nor is it clear how Meta will ensure that your data remains secure and private. For now, we can only focus on what we do know: Horizon Worlds is based on relatively new technology — technology with very limited regulation. That said, it may take a long time for clear legal expectations to be put in place, leaving the virtual landscape somewhat precarious for current users.
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Biography of Mark Zuckerberg
Mark zuckerberg – computer programmer, internet entrepreneur.
Full name: Mark Elliot Zuckerberg
Date of birth: May 14, 1984 (age 32)
Place of birth: White Plains, New York, U.S.
Residence: Palo Alto, California, U.S.
Occupation: Computer programmer, internet entrepreneur
Spouse: Priscilla Chan (m. 2012)
Children: Maxima Chan Zuckerberg
Mark Elliot Zuckerberg was born on May 14, 1984, in White Plains, New York, U.S. He is an American computer programmer and Internet entrepreneur. He is also famous worldwide, for having developed ‘Facebook’, the most widely used social networking website. At a very young age, he was taught how to write computer programs by his father, and tutor David Newman. In high school, he developed a music player, ‘Synapse’, and while still a student at ‘Harvard University’, he launched his website ‘Facebook’, along with college mates Chris Hughes, Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, and Dustin Moskovitz. Though he was initially accused by some senior students, of having stolen their idea, his site’s popularity was not affected. ‘Facebook’ saw a steady rise in the number of active users per month. The founder kept adding to the platform with services like ‘Wirehog’, ‘Beacon’ and ‘Connect’. The website started out as a networking platform only for ‘Harvard University’, and then was opened for other colleges. Soon, it became available to general public, and gained widespread popularity for its user-friendly interface. Zuckerberg is now the chairman and CEO of the company ‘Facebook, Inc’, earning one dollar as his salary. His website has made him so popular that the film ‘The Social Network’, starring Jesse Eisenberg, was made based on a book, ‘The Accidental Billionaires’, which documented Mark’s life.
Since 2010, Time magazine has named Zuckerberg among the 100 wealthiest and most influential people in the world as a part of its Person of the Year distinction. In December 2016, Zuckerberg was ranked 10th on Forbes list of The World’s Most Powerful People.
Childhood and Educational Life
Mark Elliot Zuckerberg was born to Edward, and his wife Karen, in the city of White Plains, New York, on May 14, 1984. Edward was a dentist, while Karen worked as a psychiatrist. The young boy was brought up in the village of Dobbs Ferry, along with siblings Randi, Arielle, and Donna.
He pursued his education from the ‘Ardsley High School’, New York, and later the ‘Phillips Exeter Academy’ in New Hampshire, where he exhibited flair for astronomy, mathematics, physics, English classical literature, foreign languages. He was also asked to lead the fencing team of the ‘Phillips Exeter Academy’.
While in middle school, Mark was taught ‘Atari BASIC Programming’ by his father in the 1990s. Eventually software programmer David Newman began teaching the young boy everything about programming.
Zuckerberg developed an interest in computers at an early age; when he was about 12, he used Atari BASIC to create a messaging program he named “Zucknet.” His father used the program in his dental office, so that the receptionist could inform him of a new patient without yelling across the room. The family also used Zucknet to communicate within the house. Together with his friends, he also created computer games just for fun.
To keep up with Mark’s burgeoning interest in computers, his parents hired private computer tutor David Newman to come to the house once a week and work with Mark. Newman later told reporters that it was hard to stay ahead of the prodigy, who began taking graduate courses at nearby Mercy College around this same time.
Around the same time, he made a music player that was programmed to memorize a listener’s music choices. The programme, named ‘Synapse Media Player’, was built under the banner of a company called ‘Intelligent Media Group’, and was posted to a news website, ‘Slashdot’.
After graduating from Exeter in 2002, Zuckerberg enrolled at Harvard University. By his sophomore year at the ivy league institution, he had developed a reputation as the go-to software developer on campus. It was at that time that he built a program called CourseMatch, which helped students choose their classes based on the course selections of other users. He also invented Facemash, which compared the pictures of two students on campus and allowed users to vote on which one was more attractive. The program became wildly popular, but was later shut down by the school administration after it was deemed inappropriate.
Zuckerberg met his future wife, fellow student Priscilla Chan, at a fraternity party during his sophomore year at Harvard. They began dating in 2003. In September 2010, Zuckerberg invited Chan, by then a medical student at the University of California, San Francisco, to move into his rented Palo Alto house. Zuckerberg studied Mandarin in preparation for the couple’s visit to China in December 2010. On May 19, 2012, Zuckerberg and Chan married in Zuckerberg’s backyard in an event that also celebrated her graduation from medical school. On July 31, 2015, Zuckerberg announced that he and Chan were expecting a baby girl.
On December 1, Zuckerberg announced the birth of his first child, Maxima Chan Zuckerberg (“Max”). The couple announced on their Chinese New Year video, published on February 6, 2016, that Maxima’s official Chinese name is Chen Mingyu (Chinese: 陈明宇).
In 2009, writer Ben Mezrich released a book titled ‘The Accidental Billionaires’, based on the famous entrepreneur’s life. Mezrich sold the rights to Aaron Sorkin, who wrote the screenplay for the movie ‘The Social Network’. Mark claimed that the film was a deviation from the story of his life.
In December 2012, Zuckerberg and his wife Priscilla Chan announced they would give the majority of their wealth over the course of their lives to “advancing human potential and promoting equality” in the spirit of The Giving Pledge. On December 1, 2015, they announced they would eventually give 99% of their Facebook shares (worth about $45 billion at the time) to the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative.
This famous entrepreneur contributes regularly to social causes, and has made monetary donations to the ‘Newark Public Schools’, and ‘San Francisco General Hospital’. Along with his wife, he also contributed $25 million to help victims of the Ebola disease in West Africa.
Zuckerberg and his friends created a site that allowed users to create their own profiles, upload photos, and communicate with other users. The group ran the site—first called The Facebook—out of a dorm room at Harvard until June 2004. After his sophomore year, Zuckerberg dropped out of college to devote himself to Facebook full time, moving the company to Palo Alto, California. By the end of 2004, Facebook had 1 million users.
In 2005, Zuckerberg’s enterprise received a huge boost from the venture capital firm Accel Partners. Accel invested $12.7 million into the network, which at the time was open only to ivy league students. Zuckerberg’s company then granted access to other colleges, high school and international schools, pushing the site’s membership to more than 5.5 million users by December 2005. The site then began attracting the interest of other companies, who wanted to advertize with the popular social hub. Not wanting to sell out, Zuckerberg turned down offers from companies such as Yahoo! and MTV Networks. Instead, he focused on expanding the site, opening up his project to outside developers and adding more features.
Within the next year, this brilliant software programmer introduced two other services within the ‘Facebook’ platform, called ‘Beacon’ and ‘Connect’.
Zuckerberg seemed to be going nowhere but up, however in 2006, the business mogul faced his first big hurdle. The creators of Harvard Connection claimed that Zuckerberg stole their idea, and insisted the software developer needed to pay for their business losses. Zuckerberg maintained that the ideas were based on two very different types of social networks but, after lawyers searched Zuckerberg’s records, incriminating Instant Messages revealed that Zuckerberg may have intentionally stolen the intellectual property of Harvard Connection and offered Facebook users’ private information to his friends.
Zuckerberg later apologized for the incriminating messages, saying he regretted them. “If you’re going to go on to build a service that is influential and that a lot of people rely on, then you need to be mature, right?” he said in an interview with The New Yorker. “I think I’ve grown and learned a lot.”
In 2010, Steven Levy, who wrote the 1984 book Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution, wrote that Zuckerberg “clearly thinks of himself as a hacker”. Zuckerberg said that “it’s OK to break things” “to make them better”. Facebook instituted “hackathons” held every six to eight weeks where participants would have one night to conceive of and complete a project. The company provided music, food, and beer at the hackathons, and many Facebook staff members, including Zuckerberg, regularly attended. “The idea is that you can build something really good in a night”, Zuckerberg told Levy. “And that’s part of the personality of Facebook now….. It’s definitely very core to my personality.”
Vanity Fair magazine named Zuckerberg number 1 on its 2010 list of the Top 100 “most influential people of the Information Age”. Zuckerberg ranked number 23 on the Vanity Fair 100 list in 2009. In 2010, Zuckerberg was chosen as number 16 in New Statesman’s annual survey of the world’s 50 most influential figures.
Although an initial settlement of $65 million was reached between the two parties, the legal dispute over the matter continued well into 2011, after Narendra and the Winklevosses claimed they were misled in regards to the value of their stock.
On October 1, 2012, Zuckerberg visited Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev in Moscow to stimulate social media innovation in Russia and to boost Facebook’s position in the Russian market. Russia’s communications minister tweeted that Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev urged the social media giant’s founder to abandon plans to lure away Russian programmers and instead consider opening a research center in Moscow. In 2012, Facebook had roughly 9 million users in Russia, while domestic clone VK had around 34 million. Rebecca Van Dyck, Facebook’s head of consumer marketing, claimed that 85 million American Facebook users were exposed to the first day of the Home promotional campaign on April 6, 2013.
On August 19, 2013, the Washington Post reported that Zuckerberg’s Facebook profile was hacked by an unemployed web developer.
Zuckerberg introduced a new project in 2013, titled ‘Internet.org’, in collaboration with cell phone firms like ‘Qualcomm’, ‘Samsung’, ‘Opera Software’, ‘Ericsson’, ‘Microsoft’, ‘MediaTek’, and ‘Reliance’. The aim of the project was to enable widespread use of Internet in developing countries.
Use of Other Social Networks
Zuckerberg created an account with Google+ soon after the social network was unveiled, saying he sees it as a “validation for his vision” of online social networking. By July 2011, Zuckerberg had become the most followed user on Google+, outranking Google co-founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin. As of March 6, 2012, his ranking has dropped to 184 on the service, behind Page and Brin. His public profile is minimal with one photo and a bio that reads “I make things”.
Zuckerberg has maintained a private account on Twitter under the username “zuck”, although as of November 2014, the account’s status is suspended. In 2009, he revealed that the public account “finkd” also belonged to him.
Zuckerberg founded the Start-up: Education foundation. On September 22, 2010, it was reported that Zuckerberg had donated $100 million to Newark Public Schools, the public school system of Newark, New Jersey. Critics noted the timing of the donation as being close to the release of The Social Network, which painted a somewhat negative portrait of Zuckerberg. Zuckerberg responded to the criticism, saying, “The thing that I was most sensitive about with the movie timing was, I didn’t want the press about The Social Network movie to get conflated with the Newark project. I was thinking about doing this anonymously just so that the two things could be kept separate.” Newark Mayor Cory A. Booker stated that he and New Jersey Governor Chris Christie had to convince Zuckerberg’s team not to make the donation anonymously. The money was largely wasted, according to journalist Dale Russakoff.
On December 9, 2010, Zuckerberg, Bill Gates, and investor Warren Buffett signed a promise they called “The Giving Pledge “, in which they promised to donate to charity at least half of their wealth over the course of time, and invited others among the wealthy to donate 50% or more of their wealth to charity.
Zuckerberg made two major life changes in May 2012. Facebook had its initial public offering, which raised $16 billion, making it the biggest internet IPO in history. How Zuckerberg’s company will handle this influx of cash remains to be seen. But Zuckerberg may be looking at more acquisitions. He personally negotiated the company deal to buy Instragram the previous month.
After the initial success of the IPO, the Facebook stock price dropped somewhat in the early days of trading. But Zuckerberg is expected to weather any ups and downs in his company’s market performance. He holds more than a quarter of its stock and retains 57 percent control of the voting shares.
On May 19, 2012—a day after the IPO—Zuckerberg wed his longtime girlfriend, Priscilla Chan. About 100 people gathered at the couple’s Palo Alto, California home. The guests thought they were there to celebrate Chan’s graduation from medical school, but instead they witnessed Zuckerberg and Chan exchange vows. In May 2013, Facebook made the Fortune 500 list for the first time—making Zuckerberg, at the age of 28, the youngest CEO on the list.
On February 24, 2016, Zuckerberg sent out a company-wide internal memo to employees formally rebuking employees who had crossed out handwritten “Black Lives Matter” phrases on the company walls and had written “All Lives Matter” in their place. Facebook allows employees to free-write thoughts and phrases on company walls. The memo was then leaked by several employees. As Zuckerberg had previously condemned this practice at previous company meetings, and other similar requests had been issued by other leaders at Facebook, Zuckerberg wrote in the memo that he would now consider this overwriting practice not only disrespectful, but “malicious as well.” According to Zuckerberg’s memo, “Black Lives Matter doesn’t mean other lives don’t — it’s simply asking that the black community also achieves the justice they deserve.” The memo also noted that the act of crossing something out in itself, “means silencing speech, or that one person’s speech is more important than another’s.” Zuckerberg also said in the memo that he would be launching investigations into the incidents. The New York Daily News interviewed Facebook employees who commented anonymously that, “Zuckerberg was genuinely angry about the incident and it really encouraged staff that Zuckerberg showed a clear understanding of why the phrase ‘Black Lives Matter’ must exist, as well as why writing through it is a form of harassment and erasure.”
In January 2017, Zuckerberg criticized Donald Trump’s executive order to severely limit immigrants and refugees from some countries.
Awards & Achievements
In 2010, this accomplished entrepreneur was named the ‘Person of the Year’, by ‘Times’ magazine.
In 2011, ‘The Jerusalem Post’, an Israeli newspaper, named him the one of the ‘Most Influential Jews’.
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Mark Zuckerberg, Facebook’s CEO and co-founder, has accomplished what very few people could ever dream of in such a short period. A little more than a decade back, an USA based 19-year-old established “thefacebook.com” in a room at Harvard University’s Kirkland House. Today, he is 36 years of age and ranks among the world’s wealthiest people, with a net worth of 132 billion dollars, primarily due to the success of Facebook (Eyre, 2021). He did not leave it there. After a year of hard effort, Mark Zuckerberg constructed an artificial intelligence helper named “Jarvis” to help him turn his residence into a “smart home” (Rahman, N.D.). To let the world know about his accomplishments, he shared the video on his official Facebook page, which quickly became viral. Thus, the current case study examines Zuckerberg’s multiple facets as an international entrepreneur and attempts to critically evaluate the various elements that contributed to his success in the worldwide market.
Exploring thoroughly before committing to a venture
One of the most frequent errors made by novice entrepreneurs is mindlessly following every new trend. They adopt anything that is making headlines without conducting a thorough study. Mark Zuckerberg, on the other hand, has an entirely different perspective on this. He advises that young entrepreneurs must select their ventures wisely. “The greatest risk,” Zuckerburg asserts, “is not taking any risk” (Abdelhaey, 2019). While an entrepreneur should be willing to break glass ceilings and take calculated risks, they should be calculated. Making business commitments without conducting adequate due diligence is a sure way to catastrophic outcomes.
The capability of “Moving fast”
Facebook has always adhered to the slogan “Move Fast and Break Things,” which has aided in the company’s growth to become the world’s largest social network. Zuckerberg has always espoused the importance of moving quickly, even if it means breaking a few things. When Facebook introduced a new NewsFeed, they found themselves in a pickle. They acted quickly and gave consumers the choice of viewing both the new and old “NewsFeeds”, which remedied the issue. They also encountered blowback from users when they debuted their “Timeline” feature, but their proactive approach enabled them to resolve issues quickly and without instilling mistrust (Burlea, N.D.).
Setting high goals with a long-term relevance
Mark Zuckerberg has lived his entire life by the adage “Think big, start small,” and it has worked brilliantly for him. From modest beginnings to a massive empire, Mark Zuckerberg has always had long-term aspirations in mind. From the start, his vision was very clear. He turned down numerous rich offers by emphatically declaring that he was there to develop something for the longer term. Along with his unwavering commitment, he sets high standards for himself and his organisation, which is reflected in his work ethic (Hoffmann, Proferes and Zimmer, 2018). He is constantly striving to improve the user experience through innovation and state-of-the-art features.
Being Passionate about the set goal
When one looks examines the lives of some of the world’s most successful entrepreneurs, one is likely to detect a common tendency among them all. They are devoted to their work. The same drive has enabled Facebook to innovate at a breakneck pace and overcome every impediment in its path (Lim, 2020). That same devotion enabled the Facebook phenom to reject a barrage of buyout proposals, despite the difficulty.
Hiring the right kind of men
When it comes to hiring employees for his organisation, no one has a firmer hand than he does. His advice to aspiring entrepreneurs is to never skimp on recruiting the best workers. In the long run, a company can only improve if it hires someone truly exceptional, believes Zuckerberg.
Zuckerberg’s formula for selecting the finest individuals is- being upfront about what an entrepreneur stands for and employing the best talent to complement his/her existing abilities. Sheryl Sandberg (who used to work for Google) is the ideal of a proper hire (Hoffmann, Proferes and Zimmer, 2018). She was appointed COO of Facebook and is responsible for a sizable portion of the advertisements that Facebook receives, which account for a sizable portion of its turnover.
Being prepared to keep on learning
Facebook was founded on the willingness to learn new things. Mark Zuckerberg developed an early interest in computers and programming. At the juvenile age of 11, he even created a programme named “ZuckNet” to connect his father’s home and workplace computers. He created games using his friend’s pictures and picked up a variety of languages along the way (Abdelhaey, 2019). The list could go on indefinitely. Despite having reached the pinnacle of his field, he continues to enrol in courses to stay aware of the latest technological advancements.
Striving to improve the quality of product/service
According to Mark Zuckerberg, an entrepreneur cannot expect to succeed without first creating a fantastic product. Whatever his/her job, he/she must understand his/her product like the back of his/her hand. Despite his position as CEO, Zuckerberg works together with his staff to improve Facebook. According to Zuckerberg, as a young entrepreneur, one must focus on what clients want and develop the product accordingly.
Making the best use of Time
Another feature that the majority of successful businesses have is that they all place a premium on time. Mark Zuckerberg is not an outlier in this regard. Age is only a number to him. He aspires to greater things in life, and that is the reason he values his time so highly (Lim, 2020). He realizes that once something is lost, it cannot be recovered, even if millions of dollars are spent. That is where his philosophy of “move fast and break things” emerged: to make the best use of time while it is still possible.
It is evident from the above discussion that Zuckerberg has succeeded as an international entrepreneur by the virtue of the mentioned characteristic features, which set him and his company apart from the rest of the crowd. Zuckerberg, through his success, demonstrates that with the necessary vision, focus, and commitment, it is possible to reach the zenith of success in the sphere of entrepreneurship, that too, in the global context.
“Technology entrepreneurship” is a complex concept that requires not just many disciplines and levels of analysis to be examined from a variety of viewpoints, but also a “case-by-case” strategy to be relevant. Technological entrepreneurship encompasses four distinct sets of activities: i) developing new technologies or identifying existing ones, (ii) identifying and matching emerging market opportunities associated with the application of these technologies, (iii) development/application of technology, and (iv) creation of business (Giones and Brem, 2017).
Mark Zuckerberg has stated that even though Facebook hosts and generates content, he does not consider Facebook to be a “media firm.” He refers to Facebook as a “technology company” since the corporation’s principal function is to employ engineers who develop code and create products and services for other people (Duval-Couetil, Ladisch and Yi, 2021). This technology firm founded by Zuckerberg meets all of the requirements for being classified as a technical enterprise; the following elements illustrate this assertion:
- It establishes a Fan Page for the Product/Service: Individuals may build a brand by amassing a sizable following on Facebook. Fan Pages are critical since they enable direct communication between consumers and the firm and/or other consumers. If a firm has recently launched a new product, its fan page might provide invaluable input, as supporters are likely to initiate discussions on the page. Additionally, these pages empower customers by allowing them to submit images and videos.
- It significantly improves advertising: Facebook derives all of its revenue from advertising and has built an outstanding advertising infrastructure. Depending on the size of the business, the owner can select from a variety of advertising options (Bahcecik, Akay and Akdemir, 2019). Anyone can purchase advertisements at any moment based on the number of clicks or impressions. Social actions are narratives about a user’s friends that are associated with and shown alongside the advertising.
- An effective platform for research: Along with the improved advertising platform, Facebook has built a robust research tool for tracking the success of ads. Businesses have access to information about an activity, fan demographics, advertising performance, and trends. With this data, a business can optimise its personalised content on Facebook and fine-tune its ad-targeting (Giones and Brem, 2017). Their extensive collection of real demographic data enables a company to have a thorough knowledge of who is connecting with business and how. The best part is that this service is entirely free.
- Creation and development of application: Another excellent method of promoting a business is to create a robust application. With the Facebook Platform, one can develop apps that are tightly integrated with Facebook, make use of the social graph’s strength, and open up new prospects for business (Duval-Couetil, Ladisch and Yi, 2021). The platform includes all of the tools necessary to easily develop customised interactions for people with a business.
As a result of these characteristics, Zuckerberg meets the definition of a true technology entrepreneur. It is one of the most powerful “web 2.0” platforms now available on the market, and all firms should apply at least some of the procedures outlined. Social networks are no longer simply for casual social connections, which is why corporations like “Ernst & Young” , “Apple” , and “Nike” all have significant Facebook presences.
Course Work 2: Literature Review on “Psychology of the International Entrepreneur”
Steinbrink, Berger and Kuckertz (2020) states that entrepreneurial psychological theories place a premium on the person and the mental or emotional factors that motivate entrepreneurs. According to a notion advanced by psychologist David McClelland, an emeritus professor at Harvard, entrepreneurs are motivated by a desire for accomplishment. Professor emeritus Julian Rotter of the “University of Connecticut” proposed a locus of control theory. According to Rotter’s theory, individuals with a strong internal locus of control think their actions can impact the external environment, and research indicates that the majority of entrepreneurs share this feature, opine Li et al . (2020).
Numerous studies have been conducted on the psychological traits that entrepreneurs frequently exhibit. As per the views of Shir, Nikolaev and Wincent (2019), there is no such thing as an “entrepreneurial personality,” and the psychological makeup of successful entrepreneurs varies significantly. These are the motivations behind traits such as a desire to be their boss, as well as a reluctance, at times, to seek expert counsel from others (Chadwick and Raver, 2020).
To begin with, entrepreneurs have an innate desire for accomplishment. This refers to the necessity of pursuing success aggressively to attain a sense of personal accomplishment. Ndofirepi (2020) is of the opinion that entrepreneurs have a proclivity for selecting and pursuing commercial endeavours that offer a reasonable probability of success or a high potential for personal achievement and pleasure but without an overwhelming risk of failure. Entrepreneurs, want challenges but typically avoid firms with limited potential for development and success. They have little possibility of developing a sense of personal accomplishment.
Entrepreneurs frequently struggle to comprehend why people in their organisation aren’t motivated by the same desire for success as they are. It is critical for a successful entrepreneurial organisation that key personnel share the same values, vision, and business objectives, believe Palmer et al (2019).
The second trait in common is the presence of an internal centre of control. The term “locus of control” relates to an individual’s perspective of the reasons for life occurrences. Internal locus of control refers to an individual’s belief that their environment, in this case, the performance of their business, is within their control. That is, chance and fate have no bearing on what occurs, and an entrepreneur’s success or failure is determined by his or her talents and expertise. This might help an entrepreneur feel more secure while making business decisions (Singh, 2020). It can, however, occasionally result in a sense of failure if things take longer or cost more than anticipated, even if there are valid reasons for this.
The third feature in common is a proclivity towards ambiguity and uncertainty. This is a term that relates to an individual’s aptitude and comfort level with partial or unclear information. Incomplete knowledge about markets, cash flows, rivals, and intellectual property creation is frequently a characteristic of an entrepreneurial firm. From the comments of Singh (2020), it is apparent that entrepreneurs may find an uncertain business position attractive, even pleasant, and this may appear uninteresting if a business is simply ticking over. However, López-Núñez et al . (2020) believe that during some stages of a firm’s growth, a time of consolidation may be beneficial to the business, if not particularly difficult for the entrepreneur.
A fourth frequent trait is what is referred to as a risk-taking proclivity. That is, the entrepreneur actively seeks out hazardous enterprises or assignments and has a higher proclivity for risk-taking. However, a critical notion here is taking measured risks rather than making rash or spur-of-the-moment judgments. Kerr, Kerr and Xu (2017) argue that there is a distinction between taking a calculated risk and taking a risk. Entrepreneurs are risk-takers, but they are unlikely to view themselves as severe risk-takers, even if others do. They have a more optimistic outlook on life than others.
Psychological theories of entrepreneurship emphasized the emotional and mental aspects of the individuals that drive their entrepreneurial activities. Four of the most popular psychological theories of entrepreneurship today include:
- “Action regulation theory”
- “Passion theory”
- “Rotter’s locus of control theory” and,
- “McClelland’s theory”
Action regulation theory
Michael Frese outlines the application of “Action regulation theory” with relation to entrepreneurship. It is elaborated as the meta-theory which regulates goal-directed behaviour (Bylund and McCaffrey, 2017). This theory explains how individuals control their cognitive behaviour with the help of cognitive processes which consist of selection and development, orientation, monitoring and planning and processing feedbacks.
To examine human action according to this theory there are three dimensions:
- sequence highlights the path taken from goals to feedback.
- the focus extends from activities to self and,
- structure outlines the level of actions that are often regulated
(O’Shea, Buckley and Halbesleben, 2017)
Fischer, D., Mauer, R. and Brettel, M., (2018) opine that the basic application of this theory to entrepreneurship is seen in terms of planning. To describe entrepreneurial planning behaviour, four action processes have been suggested; opportunistic, complete planning and review. Based on Frese’s theory, early-stage entrepreneurs are likely to observe a new task. Also, this occurs repeatedly and this occurrence of the action is likely to feature in the coming few years. Furthermore, it highlights the fact cognitive ability is much more crucial to entrepreneurs. Compared to the other two theories, this theory is significantly less criticized, claim O’Shea, Buckley and Halbesleben (2017).
Over the last couple of decades, entrepreneurship experts have begun to deconstruct the idea of entrepreneurial passion, which has long been a cornerstone of entrepreneurial motivating rhetoric. “Passion” motivates us to work harder and more effectively, state Obschonka, Moeller and Goethner (2019). Perhaps entrepreneurs regard their enterprises as their infants and nurture them with the same zeal that parents do with their human offspring. Perhaps entrepreneurship scholars should place a greater emphasis on emotions when attempting to understand entrepreneurial behaviour.
There are two primary classifications of passion:
“Obsessive passion (OP)” is a term that refers to the deliberate integration of an activity into one’s personality, creating an internal demand to engage in the activity that the individual enjoys, according to Gielnik et al . (2017).
“Harmonious passion (HP)” is a term that refers to an independent internalisation that motivates individuals to pursue activities they like. HP fosters healthy adaptation, whereas OP stymies it through negative affect and inflexible persistence.”These principles have lately been applied in a number of empirical investigations.
Lex et al . (2020) have discovered that serial entrepreneurs had a higher level of entrepreneurial enthusiasm than first-time entrepreneurs. They discover that portfolio entrepreneurs (those who hold numerous company interests concurrently) exhibit the greatest levels of harmonious passion.
Rotter’s locus of control theory
Rotter’s “locus of control” has garnered prominent attention amongst personality theories of entrepreneurship. This theory was formulated in 1954 by Julian Rotter. Furthermore, Locus of Control offers people the belief that control resides within them i.e. internally or can be created externally, believes Kovach (2018).
High internal locus of control: In this case, people believe that they are in charge of their actions and fortune, according to Iles-Caven et al . (2020). Events would be determined based on their qualities and conduct.
High external locus of control: In this scenario, individuals believe that outcomes are out of their control and it completely depends on external factors such as fate, change etc.
Individuals who have a high tendency towards risks are more likely to become an entrepreneur. Furthermore, risk-taking is the most elementary action that entrepreneurs do to achieve high-level performance and success, remark Carton, Ries and Nowicki Jr (2021). Therefore, this theory manages to explain that entrepreneurs with internal locus believe that emergence of success is due to their capabilities and actions. While entrepreneurs with external locus assume chances of success or survival are driven by institutional and external forces.
David McClelland’s theory
David McClelland, a Harvard psychologist formulated the “Theory of Achievement Motivation” in 1967. As per the opinions of Mourão and Schneider Locatelli (2020), McClelland through his theory had tried to outline why few communities are more economically booming as compared to others. Furthermore, according to him, entrepreneurs are classified based on their need for achievement which is the driving factor for their economic growth. According to McClelland, an entrepreneur works in a structured and creative way which eventually leads to better decision making in predicaments.
As seen from McClelland’s need-based theory on motivation, three motivators or needs have been prioritized for:
- achievement and,
(Woodside et al ., 220)
Furthermore, individuals possess these three dominant motivators irrespective of their age, gender or culture. These three motivators are directly proportional to life experiences and culture experienced by individuals, hold Lloyd (2019). Entrepreneurs use these motivators to influence the performance of employees by setting goals for them, offering motivation and rewards. Individuals who are encouraged by the sense of achievement often seek challenges and they like to thrive on them. They like to evaluate and act on feedback to perform better. On the contrary, individuals who are motivated by affiliation are comfortable in a group and do not prefer taking risks and uncertainty in their tasks, asserts Lloyd (2019). They prefer to take limited feedbacks and most likely will not act on it.
From the study research conducted by Mourão and Schneider Locatelli (2020) it is understandable that individuals with a strong want for power perform at optimum conditions when they are put in charge. Competition motivates them and they perform well in goal-oriented tasks. Finally, McClelland concluded that individuals with a need to succeed are more likely to become entrepreneurs as they are not motivated by money or other benefits and profits are just other sources to highlight their success.
While entrepreneurship can be incredibly rewarding, it’s never a smooth road. And the strain of building and running one’s own business can lead to serious consequences. The experts with the “ Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index ” found that 34% of entrepreneurs report experiencing anxiety, point out Bockorny and Youssef-Morgan (2019). And nearly half of them admit to feeling stressed. In both cases, this is about 4% higher than what other workers reported. Another study has suggested that mental health challenges affect more than 70% of entrepreneurs, reveal Nikolaev, Boudreaux and Wood (2020). These individuals were found to be more likely than the general population to deal with “depression”, “ADHD’, “bipolar diagnosis”, and “addiction”.
Digan et al . (2019) state that though unfortunate, these statistics should not be particularly surprising. After all, about 75% of venture-backed startups fail. And less than 5% live up to their original projections.The very nature of entrepreneurship often means that people end up neglecting their health. Mealtimes become sporadic and of low quality. Sleep and exercise fall to the wayside. This is because their endocrine system is taking a “fight or flight” approach to chronic stress, overriding anything the brain deems non-critical, such as sleep and digestion.
For some, the pressures of entrepreneurship lead to a loss of quality of life. Other times, it becomes more traumatic. According to the views of Mourão and Schneider Locatelli (2020), as reported in an article titled “ The Psychological Price of Entrepreneurship ” , the suicides of well-known entrepreneurs like Ilya Zhitomirskiy and Jody Sherman have brought new attention to mental health challenges. More recently, the deaths of Kate Spade and Anthony Bourdain have made national news.
Many entrepreneurs are rising to the challenge, sharing their struggles in the open like never before. Ben Huh, CEO of the “Cheezburger Network” websites, wrote about his suicidal thoughts in a post called “When Death Feels Like a Good Option” . More personal insights came from Sean Percival, co-founder of a children’s clothing startup, in a post called “When It’s Not All Good, Ask for Help” (Mahfud et al ., 2020).
Experts agree that the best defences and remedies for mental health challenges come from resisting the “fight or flight” mode that can lead one to neglect himself/herself and his/her health. This starts with spending time with loved ones. One of the key benefits of family time is that it helps an individual to deepen his/her identity outside of business, which can pay dividends when his/her business struggles, suggest Shir, Nikolaev and Wincent (2019).
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In the 1990's, no one had any idea of what Facebook was and how it would impact the social lives of many individuals in the world. Ever since its creation, Facebook has grown tremendously from a site that was used in colleges to a social network that has over a billion users globally with the numbers of users always growing. The social networking website founded by Mark Zuckerberg is very famous and widely used, which has led to it being integrated into other web sites, so one can use their Facebook account when trying to sign in those sites. Facebook is unique in its design as it allows the users to connect and share with his or her family and friends online messages, videos and photos with geographical barriers being of a little problem.
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Mark Zuckerburg was born in 1984 to a dentist Edward Zuckerburg and Karen Zuckerberg, his mother, who is a psychiatrist. He is the second-born child in his family and a brother to three sisters; Arielle, Randi, and Donna. His family lived in Dobbs Ferry, New York, where he was raised. Mark practiced the Jewish religion ever since he was a child. He attended Ardsley High School, and later went to Phillips Exeter Academy in New Hampshire. After a series of great grade performances, he graduated and later entered Harvard University, which is well-known for producing innovators in science and business ("Mark Zuckerberg Biography-Childhood," n.d). During his high school education, he was very good at playing fencing, which led to him being appointed the captain of the fencing club.
Beginning of His Career
Mark's interests in software programs at a young age gave him the privilege to learn Atari BASICS from his father and his tutor. This enabled him to create a messenger program that allowed computers at their home and at his father's dental office to connect to each other. This allowed an easy exchange of information between the computers. In addition, his innovative ideas helped him create an Mp3 program that could predict the next track song that a listener would like to listen. This program interested IT corporations that wanted to acquire it, but the young Mark Zuckerburg turned down the offer. Despite performing wonderfully in his school coursework in such subjects as science and literature, he still remained mainly interested in coding, programming, and development of computer software. After he was accepted to Harvard University to do computer science and psychology, his interest in programming grew and he was able to create software known as Course Match. The program was very useful to the students since it enabled them to choose their subjects according to their interests ("Mark Zuckerberg story- bio," n.d). When he was helping other programmers to create a social website, he got the idea of creating Facebook, and with the help of his friends, he introduced Facebook to other colleges, which then led to the continuous expansion of the social networking website. Today, Mr. Zuckerburg holds 60% of the shares with the rest being divided among his co-founders.
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Development over the Years
In 2004, while still in campus, Mark registered the domain TheFacebook.com, which marked the beginning of the social network website. At the time, Facebook was only used by the students within Harvard University and had over four thousand registered users within the campus. Mark and his friends decided to expand outside the university by introducing the site to other universities, such as Yale and Stanford. The only thing that was needed to register was an email address, which was used to create a profile. Facebook became very popular and was growing beyond the borders of the university; many people became very interested in the social network site ("Mark Zuckerberg Biography: The Success," n.d). Mark and his friend searched for investors who would help in the growth and expansion of the site and by 2005, the site was open to the public to those who were interested. Since then, it has grown tremendously and almost anyone with an eligible email address could sign in and be a registered user.
In his sophomore year, Mark developed a website called Facemash that students used to vote for faces they preferred. This led to many controversies because firstly, Zuckerberg hacked Harvard student database information and used the photos of the students illegally, which led to a disciplinary action. Secondly, many students did not like the idea of them being ranked according to their appearances. The website was using the Harvard University's serves, which were very overwhelming for the computers due to the massive data resources that they required.
After Mark Zuckerburg launched Facebook, some senior university students claimed that he had stolen their idea after they had contacted him to program and code a social site they had planned to launch in the university (Carlson, 2010). The allegation led to lawsuits with Mark and Facebook being accused of theft and fraud. The lawsuit continued until the both parties decided to reach a settlement that made both parties content.
The issue of privacy of the users' accounts has been a constant bone of contention giving Facebook a bad image. Mark was accused of hacking the accounts of users, reading their messages and changing some of their profiles information (Fisher, 2010). Though such claims were not proved, it led to many questions on the users' side of whether their personal information is safe. Recently, the change in the news feed feature that informed the user of any recent events and information was changed, and what is available to the user became controlled. Many users were not pleased with such changes and opted to go to alternative social networks (Cartalucci, 2014).
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Mark Zuckerberg has established such an education foundation as a 'Startup', which aims at improving the quality of education that was being provided in public schools. He has also donated to various schools and hospitals, for example to Newark Public Schools and San Francisco General Hospital. After the birth of his daughter, Mark and his wife decided to donate 99 percent of their Facebook shares to charities ("Mark Zuckerberg Biography-Childhood," n.d). This is not the first time the couple has donated to charities; they had donated twenty-five million dollars to help victims who were affected by the Ebola epidemic in West Africa.
In 2010, Mark Zuckerberg was awarded the coveted title 'Person of The Year' by Time magazine leaving behind such famous people as Lady Gaga. In 2011, a newspaper in Israel The Jerusalem Post named him the most influential Jew that year, and in 2013, he was awarded the 'Crunchies CEO of The Year'.
Facebook is working with other companies, such as Nokia, Ericsson Opera Software, and Samsung, to create Internet.org, which aims at ensuring that people and children in developing countries are able to access the Internet through Free Basics Platform (Chan, 2015). However, the project has come under much scrutiny with opposing groups claiming that Free Basics violates the net neutrality. Facebook has been adding new features to its website, for example new emoticons that have been useful when writing messages. This was also done with the goal of making the social network more competitive and attractive for the users.
Facebook seeks to establish itself as an icon of mobile advertising. It aims at using the social network as a global mobile advertising market by increasing the quality of the content and targets the right people for these advertisements (Zaleski, 2015). These advertisements will also be useful to the company since it will earn the company much money.
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Mark Zuckerburg, the CEO and founder of Facebook, invented one of the worlds' most amazing social networks. The website has been considered by many as another world where people can meet and have conversations while sharing information about what is new and interesting in their lives since anyone who is minimum thirteen years and has an email address can become a registered user. The creation of Facebook did not come without its controversies and lawsuits, but it has contributed to the revolution in means that people use to communicate when compared to emails and phone calls. Today, Facebook is not the only social network that is popular. The creation of other social networks, such as WhatsApp, Instagram and twitter, are changing the face of networking and communication. Therefore, for Facebook to keep being appealing to the users, it should try to improve some of its features while ensuring that the privacy of the users' personal information is maintained.
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Essay On Mark Zuckerberg
Alexis Julien Mr. Daniels Introduction to Business March 14, 2014 Mark Zuckerberg One famous entrepreneur today is Mark Zuckerberg, the inventor of the popular social media, Facebook. It was said as he was in Harvard University he and a few friends came up with the idea of Facebook . After a few years Facebook became internationally loved. Ever since the invention of Facebook there have been many positive, but also negative effects. In the suburbs of Dobbs Ferry, New York on May 14, 1984 Mark Zuckerberg was born into a family of three sisters. His first interest in computers was in his early childhood in elementary school. When Mark was at the age of twelve he had created a messenger called “ZuckNet”. His invention allowed his computers in his home to talk to each other including his dad’s dentist office. After High school Mark enrolled in Academy of Phillips Exeter, a preparatory school. While being at the academy he was still amazed with software and wanted a degree in it. While graduating from the academy he proceeded to Harvard University. Being at Harvard, almost everyone knew him as a software programmer. With his software skills he quickly developed a site called Facemash where it would compare two of the girl’s faces and ask which one looked better. Along the way at Harvard three men, Divya Narendra, Tyler and Cameron Winklevoss approached Mark asking for his software skills to create a site called The Harvard Connection. The site was used to be a dating site around Harvard. Mark agreed to work with them when he got the idea to make his own site and dropped out of their project. With the help of Mark’s friends, Dustin Moskovitz, Chris Hughes and Eduardo Saverin they created the popular social media site called Facebook.... ... middle of paper ... ...erberg is one of those big risks takers today and still is. One risk Mark took was while he was creating Facebook he dropped out of Harvard University to complete the website. By doing this he risked the chance if the website he was creating would ever take off plus he had no job at the time. After completing Facebook, it soared off the charts and many people wanted to be apart of Facebook. Another risk Mark took was when Facebook was still becoming a hit sensation many businesses called to be apart of Facebook. But Mark took the risk of ignoring important phone calls, and cancelling business meetings. (ZuckerbergSuccessful). This shocked many investors, but Zuckerberg had a plan to rise the demand of Facebook by doing this. After taking this risk Facebook became even popular with many more investors wanting Facebook but also with Facebook users. Add more...
In this essay, the author
- Introduces mark zuckerberg, the inventor of the popular social media, facebook.
- Narrates how mark zuckerberg was born into a family of three sisters in the suburbs of dobbs ferry, new york. his first interest in computers was in elementary school.
- Narrates how mark enrolled in academy of phillips exeter, a preparatory school, and went to harvard university, where he developed facemash, which would compare two girls' faces and ask which looked better.
- Narrates how divya narendra, tyler and cameron winklevoss approached mark for his software skills to create a site called the harvard connection. mark dropped out of the project.
- Explains that mark has made many plans for businesses to expand and attract more people to their business. mark wants to connect everyone on the internet for free.
- Explains that mark's plan is to pair up with five wireless phone companies and to provide free internet access to facebook, weather, google and many other websites.
- Explains that facebook is becoming more advanced with the way people can interact with each other, advertisements pulling them in to buy their products and to promote schools.
- Opines that facebook is a positive factor when family members are away from their loved ones. businesses like facebook because it attracts new customers and gets them more money.
- Explains that there are several negative effects of facebook especially with cyberbullying, such as strangers or kidnappers hanging on facebook making friends with little kids and finding out information.
- Explains that mark zuckerberg is one of those big risks takers today and still is. he dropped out of harvard university to complete facebook, which soared off the charts.
- Analyzes how mark took the risk of ignoring important phone calls, and cancelling business meetings when facebook was still becoming a hit sensation. zuckerberg planned to rise the demand of facebook by doing this.
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Summary Of I Saw What You Did By Sheri Andrews
In the opening of her book, Ms. Andrews describes the world as one enthralled and in love with being a part of “Facebook Nation.” She describes how powerful the founder of Facebook has become (Mark Zuckerburg). Ms. Andrews even explains how he attends important meetings and has a seat at the table with the most ...
Critical Analysis of Clive Thomas’s I’m So Totally, Digitally Close To You”
Social Media began affecting our communication and relationships as early as 1969 when the first internet service provider become available to U.S. universities. In 2002, Friendster, the first social media website available to the U.S. was created and gained over 3 million members in just over 3 months. One year later, MySpace launched. In 2004, Mark Zuckerberg, a 24-year-old Harvard student, created Facebook, an online social networking service. This service was originally a way for students to interact. Today it is the world’s largest social networking service and allows over a billion users to connect though posting photos, sharing links, and comments which all appear on a “News Feed” that blasts out this information to all your virtual friends. For the current generation, this new way of communication is facilitating the act of never losing contact with anyone they have ever met. It also allows anyone on this platform to create new relationships with people they are interested in connecting with via internet.
Microsoft: Why Is Paul Bill Gates, The Face Of Microsoft
Bill Gates was one of the best management leader of his time. Cusumano, Michael said that “Gates built and led, for more than 30 years, one of the most successful technology companies in history, and Microsoft’s products touch nearly all of our lives every day. At the same time,” (25). Microsoft is known thour out the world because of his good leadership skills. One of the example why he is such a good leader. Cusumano, Michael said that “Gates stands out for how he, an d the people he hired, unique- ly combined an understanding of “the technology and the business.” Simply being a great programmer did not land you a job at Microsoft. You had to under- stand how to make money from software as well as how to work in a team.” (26). So Bill Gates packet best work for his company and make it better to work and lead the company. Cusumano, Michael said that “Gates led his company through at least two major technological transitions, ei- ther of which might have done in a less able leader and organization: from char- acter-based to graphical computing, and from the desktop to the Internet. He also directed Microsoft’s diversification from programming languages to desktop op- erating systems, applications, enterprise software, video games, and the MSN on- line business, among others.c Finally, Gates has distinguished himself as a truly charismatic leader of a unique kind of company—a software company—which defies conventional rules
Comparing The Leadership Styles Of Jeff Bezos Of Amazon And Mark Zuckerberg
In a past MBA course, I studied the leadership qualities of Mark Zuckerberg. Out of these two leaders whom I admire, Zuckerberg is the individual I would prefer to work. Ekaterina Walter wrote an article in Inc. magazine where she identified five leadership attributes of Mark Zuckerberg that contributed to his success. They are passion, purpose, people, product, and partnerships. This transformational leadership skill is part of what makes him such an effective leader. Part of Mark Zuckerberg 's mission at Facebook enhanced openness and transparency, and he believes openness fosters connectivity. Zuckerberg utilizes a charismatic/transformational/authentic leadership approach. He is self-confident, optimistic, resilient, results-oriented, and an
Interpersonal Communication in Social Network
The movie “Social Network” is about the ideas and the development behind the creation of the very popular social networking site “Facebook”. Mark Zuckerberg is the main character in the movie and also the actual creator of Facebook.
Facebook in Privacy Breach
Mark Zuckerberg, an undergraduate student from Harvard University, in 2004 created one of the most popular social networking in the world, Facebook. Zuckerberg used his sophomoric sense of humor “that led him to create the site as a type of "hot or not" game for Harvard students, where website visitors could compare two student photos side-by-side and let viewers decide who was "hot" and who was "not".” (Bellis). Facebook became extremely popular in Harvard, so it extended to other universities such as Stanford, Columbia, and Yale. A year later its creation Facebook became available to high-school students and a year later, in 2006, it became available to everyone with a valid email address and above the age of thirteen. As of May 2, 2013 Facebook reached 1.11 billion users in the world and it is available in seventy different languages. (Wikipedia). The United States is the country with the most Facebook users in the world with almost one hundred sixty six million users. From its creation time to present days, Facebook has significantly developed and gradually became an important elem...
Social Networking’s Good and Bad Impacts on Kids
Zuckerberg, Mark. Web blog post. The Facebook Blog. Facebook Page, n.d. Web. 7 Nov. 2013. .
Analysis Of Mark Zuckerberg
For everyone in the business world, Mark Zuckerberg is a well-known name to them. He is an undeniably young, successful businessman. However, Zuckerberg is also a very successful leader in his own company as well as in the world. His impact from creating Facebook is more than just impressive. Zuckerberg created the social media website where people get connected virtually and led the company to incredible success. Zuckerberg’s leadership style can be seen with inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and idealized influence. With all the aforementioned components, Mark Zuckerberg is a great example of transformational leadership.
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Social media began affecting our communication and relationships as early as 1969 when the first internet service provider became available to universities in America. According to the University of North Carolina, in 2002, Friendster, the first social media website available to the U.S., was created and gained over 3 million members in just over 3 months. One year later, MySpace launched. Facebook was created in 2004 by a 24-year-old Harvard student named Mark Zuckerberg. UNC confirms it was initially a way for Harvard students to interact; Facebook is currently the world’s largest social network with a billion users connecting though photos, links, and comments on a streaming News Feed. News Feed is a community page that shows the top stories of everyone on your Facebook. Now a billion people of today’s generation can interact with nearly everyone that have ever met. Services such as Facebook allow users to create and maintain relationships with people that they wouldn’t other wise keep in touch with. (Insert example)
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Originally, Facebook was started in 2003 by a man named Mark Zuckerburg in his college dorm room at Harvard University. It began as a social network for Harvard students and then quickly expanded to universities across America. Facebook as we know it today started in the year 2004 and now does not only include college students but ages ranging from teens to middle-aged individuals. The social network site has quickly developed into one of the most trafficked networking websites which runs thousands of databases. By building a network that has spread across various countries, Facebook has successfully created a form of technology that allows people to connect with friends across the seas with different cultures.
Biography of Mark Zuckerberg
Would you give up friendship for a billion dollar company? Well Mark Zuckerberg, creator of Facebook, did.
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Forbes estimated that in 2011, Facebook and its founder Mark Zuckerberg were worth an estimated 50 billion dollars as a result of its growing popularity. It went from a social network just for Harvard Student to a worldwide phenomenon. Twitter as well has famous celebrities and personalities who are followed by millions. Lady Gaga, Justin Bieber and Katy Perry are the top 3 most followed people on Twitter, with over 14 million people following them and updated on their every single move. Besides the elite list of celebrities and famous companies such as Google or The New York Times using social media sites as an outlet to gain customers, one of the main reasons it is so successful is its worldwide and global appeal. People from first and third world countries are aware of it, and statistics show that one in every nine people on Earth is on Facebook, and Twitter is adding up to 500,000 users each day. Search engine giant Google, perhaps the most famous name on the internet has started their own social networking experiment, Google+, which experts have predicted will also become a powerhouse.
Movie Analysis: The Social Network
...tions he dealt with. It is the story of how the world’s youngest billionaire, Mark Zuckerberg, created Facebook.
Mark Zuckerberg Case Study
...and many more things. Other sites just pictures and that’s boring. I saw the movie about Mark Zuckerburg and facebook and I really enjoyed it. The people on the paper that I got were all people that I know and I didn’t want to do them. I chose to go online and find other entrepenuers. I found Mark Zucherburg and I knew I had to do him. When I saw his name I thought of facebook and I decided to write about him.
Trends of Social Networking
Mark Zuckerberg founded Facebook in 2004 and its sole purpose is to give people the power to share and connect with the world. With 1.23 billion monthly active members, Facebook has certainly surpassed all other social sites. To put it in perspective that is roughly one-sixth of the entire world’s population. According to his book, Introduction to Digital Literacy Mark D. Bowles (2013) stated that Facebook is “the leading social networking site” where you can update your status, share information like photos, find friends and establish networks (pg. 184). This is exactly why Facebook is so popular amongst other social sites.
More about Essay On Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg as Successful Person Essay
Mark Elliot Zuckerberg is an American co-finder, president and Chief Executive Officer of Facebook; a site for social network. Zuckerberg together with his classmates Chris Hughes, Dustin Moskovitz and Eduardo Saverin co-founded the social network while they were studying at Harvard University in 2004.
The site became a success being used by people all over the world. This became a great achievement of Zuckerberg because through facebook, he did not only gained popularity but he became paper billionaire at a early age of 24. In 2010, Zuckerberg was ranked among top 35 richest Americans by Forbes.
At the age of 26, he owned wealth worth $7 billion which gave him the chance to be ranked among richest Americans. In 2010 Zuckerberg was also named in Time magazine as “ Person of the Year (McDevitt 2010).”At the beginning of this year, Zuckerberg possessed personal wealth worth $17.5 billion.
Zuckerberg’s achievements are as a result of strong personality that he possesses. Zuckerberg’s prowess in computer is not questionable; it is a unique trait that he possesses. Zuckerberg developed interest in computers when he was very young, about 12 years old. At this age, Zuckerberg managed to use Atari BASIC to formulate a program which he named Zucknet for messaging. The program was also used by the father in his dental office for messaging.
The whole family also used the program within the house for communication. Zuckerberg also created computer games when he was 12 years old. According to Allport, a person’s trait usually predicts his behaviours and can also establish the cause of some actions (Allport 1960).
A person’s trait can also develop as a major function of learning which makes them easily adapt to social circumstances when they try to achieve their needs. Zuckerberg possessed strong personality traits such as cardinal trait which is a trait that is dominant in a person’s life which revolves around them.
Cardinal trait usually dominates everything in a person’s life especially everything that they do. This explains why Zuckerberg became an expert in computers that made him develop Facebook, computer games and Zucknet at an early age. Zuckerberg also possessed central traits which are qualities that mainly characterize his personal daily interactions.
His intelligence is one of such traits. This is also one of the reasons why Zuckerberg managed to create mp3 programs when studied at school. This program drew several offers from Microsoft and Yahoo; however Zuckerberg turned Yahoo down because he wanted to retained possession of the program. He instead sold a small portion of his company to Microsoft for $240 million which implied that his company had a value of about $15 billion (McDevitt 2010).
However, many people undermined him for the sale of part of the company as they thought he did it at a small amount. This means that Zuckerburg’s programs are highly valued in America and that is why most business people expected him to sell them at a higher price. Central traits also bring out the honest in Zuckerberg when he decided to contribute $100 million to help students in New Jersey schools. He was given credit for this action which brought out humanity in him.
Zuckerberg also donated a huge amount of money to Diaspora which is a web server opened to everyone. In December 2010, Bill Gates, Warren Buffett together with Zuckerberg signed to donate to charity half of their possessions. This was called “ Giving Pledge (McDevitt 2010) .” They took their precious time to also invite other wealthy people in America to donate 50% of their wealth to charity to help those in need.
This suggests the theory of humanist which mainly emphasizes free will and also individual experience when it comes to development one’s personality (HJelle & Ziegler1992). After Zuckerberg had immersed sizeable fortune through Facebook, he showed that he was human enough and that is why he used millions of his money to fund a huge variety of philanthropic foundations.
This theory also emphasizes self-actualization concept which is an instinctive requirement for personal growth which acts as behaviour motivator (Friedman & Schustack 2011). Zuckerberg can be described as a person who possesses high level of thoughtfulness based on his ability to create many programs in a computer which depicted his prowess in computer.
He is a person who is goal-directed. This is why Zuckerberg managed to achieve more through his high knowledge in computers. He did not through away his potential which he discovered as a child when he developed Zucknet . Zuckerberg is person with imagination and strong insight following his achievements as a young person. He is more of an open person since he had a wide range of interest in computers ranging from computer games to programs. Zuckerberg also found Education foundation to help educate American children.
In conclusion, Zuckerberg managed to become a successful person in life because he possessed strong personality traits such as cardinal trait and central traits. After Zuckerberg had immersed sizeable fortune through his hard work, he managed to help other people by taking part in charity giving where he contributed huge amount of his health. This brought out humanity in him.
Allport, G. (1960). Pattern and Growth in Personality . New York: Harcourt College Pub.
Friedman, H. & Schustack, M. (2011). Personality: classic theories and modern research. New York: Allyn & Bacon Publishers.
HJelle, L. & Ziegler, D. (1992). Personality Theories: Basic Assumptions, Research, and Applications. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
McDevitt, C. (2010). What We Learned About Mark Zuckerberg This Week . New York: Journal of Business.
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